1934 Tenran-jiai (illustrated)

On the 4th and 5th of May 1934, Saineikan – a budojo located in the grounds of Tokyo Imperial Palace – was the venue of the second of three Showa-period Tenran-jiai (a budo or sports competition held in front of the Emperor). This post was mainly written in order to share some of the pictures available of the event, but I’m also using it as an opportunity to bring together related kenshi 24/7 articles.

There’s still a lot more that needs to be written both about the event itself and the people involved, but there’s no point in hoarding all these cool pictures, so here they are… enjoy!!!

(Links to related articles are after the pictures.)


Emperor Showa watching the shiai:

Saineikan:

Shinpan and competitors:

Kata (Nakayama Hakudo and Takano Sasaburo):

Competition winners (note Noma Hisashi on the right):

Finals of the professional kenshi division:

Finals of the prefectural kenshi division (Noma vs Fujimoto):

Special demonstration match (Mochida Moriji vs Ogawa Kinnosuke):

Special demonstration match (Oshima Jikida vs Ueda Heitaro):

Special demonstration match (Takano Shigeyoshi vs Nakayama Hakudo):

Special demonstration match (Saimura Goro vs Nakano Sosuke):

Special demonstration match (Jukendo):

Special demonstration (teaching children):

Various matches from throughout the two days:


Related articles on kenshi 24/7

Teikoku Kendo Kyohon – the book written by Ogawa Kinnosuke, a shinpan and special demonstration member.

The Kendo Reader – the book written by Noma Hisashi, the winner of the prefectural kenshi division.

Fujimoto Kaoru – a look into the life of the person Noma defeated to take the title.

Takano Sasaburo – the most senior sensei in attendance and head shinpan.

Saimura Goro – a shinpan and special demonstration member.

Nakayama Hakudo – a shinpan and special demonstration member.

Takizawa Kozo – information about post-WW2 Tenran-jiai and Saineikan.

(I’ll probably expand on this list as time goes on)


Video

The following video is NOT from the 1934 Tenran-jiai featured here, but one held 6 years later. Although a different shiai, I think we can assume that the execution is pretty much the same:


Source

昭和天覧試合 : 皇太子殿下御誕生奉祝。宮内省 監修。昭和9発行。大日本雄弁会講談社。

MEI-SHOBU: the ki of Naito vs the waza of Takano 名勝負:内藤高治vs高野佐三郎

Kyoto Butokuden, late Meiji period*. It’s the last tachiai of a long day but the hall is packed. The yobidashi (announcer) steps forward:

East side. Tokyo. Takano sensei !

West side. Kyoto. Naito sensei !

takanonaito2

With the call the packed audience suddenly goes quiet and an palpable feel of excitement (or perhaps expectation?) fills the air. Facing each other on the dojo floor are the two most famous swordsmen in Japan: on the east side Tokyo Koto Shihan Gakko’s Takano Sasaburo; and on the west side Busen’s Naito Takaharu. In between them moderating the tachiai stands Monna Tadashi.

The spectators sit nervously in silence wondering what kind of contest will unfold before them. Will it be an equal fight? What kind of techniques will be used? Who will be triumphant? But despite this nervousness there was no fighting mood in the air. Rather, the two sensei seemed detached.

The swordsmen bowed to each other and moved slowly into the center of the hall. Sonkyo. Finally, in the instant that they stood up, the tension between them radiated out into the audience.


Naito and Takano were born in 1862, just 4 months apart. Both were born into budo families and lived through a period of turmoil in Japan as it went through monumental cultural changes. While young they both studied kenjutsu (Hokushin Itto-ryu and Ona-ha Itto-ryu respectively) eventually heading to Tokyo to seek further instruction from the top instructors in the country – Naito under Sakakibara Kenkichi (Jikishinkage-ryu) and Takano under Yamaoka Tesshu (Muto-ryu).

In 1887, after an extended Musha-shugyo, Naito finally entered the employ as a kendo instructor in the kendo mecca that was Keishicho (the fledgling Tokyo Metropolitan police force). Takano had already entered it a year earlier in 1886. It’s almost as if they were destined to cross paths.

Their first shiai would have to wait until 1890. The event was a keishicho sponsored tournament (gekkiken-kai). At this time Takano had already moved out of his position at keishicho and was working as a kendo instructor for the Saitama police. During the competition Takano was matched up with a keishicho kenshi famed for his high-speed waza, Saruda Tosuke. However, Takano’s waza was renowned for being fast as well, and he overpowered and defeated Saruda.

As keishicho sponsored the tournament it wouldn’t be seemly for them to lose to someone working in a rival police force, even if they had once worked with them. Keishicho management’s response was to issue a command:

“Naito, take care of it.”

And with that, the future leaders of the kendo community (and creators of the modern kendo style) faced each other for the first time.

Even though they both employed their strongest techniques neither could best the other. Eventually, as time wore on and on, the shiai was called to a halt and a draw declared. Thus ended the first of many duels the pair were to have.


30 years after their first match in Tokyo they again found themselves facing off at each other, but this time they were both older, wiser, and had far more experience. In the intervening years both men had forged careers as professional kendo instructors – Takano at Tokyo koto shihan gakko and Naito at the Butokukai’s training facility Busen – and had become the top instructors in the country. Now they faced each other in the middle of the Butokuden in unmistakable seriousness as if it was a fight to the death.

During the fight the spectators felt an oppressive pressure from the shiai-jo, almost turning their blood to ice. Some people thought “I want this to finish quickly!” and others “I want this to keep going on and on!”

Just as it started softly, suddenly on Monna’s “SORE MADE” (thats enough) the shiai was over. The spectators that had been holding their breathe in excitement let out an audible sigh of relief. Even after the sensei had bowed and left the area the sense of tension remained and, for a little bit, the audience sat in stunned silence.

20140124-165817.jpg


Sources

This account is based on multiple first-hand accounts of shiai between Naito and Takano found in 3 books:

剣聖内藤高治。碧水会。高岡謙次。昭和55年発行。
宮崎茂三郎先生。高岡謙次。昭和49年発行。
剣士内藤高治。大野熊雄。昭和5年発行。

Comic pics from the manga 龍-RON-


Notes

* A precise date is not given : “The time when the Emperor or the Crown-Prince was in attendance” is the only information.
UPDATE: based on a new source, I discovered that Naito and Takaharu fought each other in 1901, 1907, and 1916 in the Butokuden (and again in 1920 at the opening of Meiji Jingu). Only scores were kept for the 1901 tachiai – it was a hikiwake. The other bouts were mohangeiko.

Osaka Tokuren demonstration(s) 大阪特練模範演武

This morning I took part in godogeiko session in the suburbs of Osaka city. This is a yearly event and includes a demonstration session plus godogeiko with some of the local kenshi (from children-adults) and a few members of the elite Osaka tokuren police squad.

Last year I had the flu so video-ed and uploaded the kihon session (see below) but this year I was fighting fit so took part as normal.

As a special present to kenshi 24/7 readers, I took and uploaded the light demonstration session between Kiwada Daiki and Teramoto Shoji, both past All Japan Kendo Championship (and WKC) winners.

Below are a couple of other video’s featuring the Osaka tokuren’s kihon geiko… enjoy!

12th January 2014 (jigeiko):

September 2013 (kihon demonstration):

January 2013 (kihon demonstration):

March 2008 (kihon and jigeiko):

Saimura Goro

一、剣道は精神が本である。技は精神を体得せんがための手段である。
一、剣道の稽古は竹刀を真剣の考え使い、身を捨てて練磨することが大切です。
一、どの間に入っても、少しもの気が抜けてはいけない。

The words above are attributed to Saimura Goro, one of the the most influential kenshi in the pre-WW2 period, and one of only 5 sensei that were awarded 10 dan after the war. A liberal translation in English reads:

* The aim of kendo is to improve the spirit. The means of achieving this is through the polishing of technique.

* It’s important to think of and use the shinai as a real sword and to cultivate a positive style of kendo with no holding back (sutemi).

* During keiko you must never relax your guard whatever distance you find yourself in.

Pretty easy advice on the face of it, but the more I read it, the more difficult it seems to be.

Saimura Goro: a very brief bio

In 1906, Saimura Goro was in the first group of students that entered the Butokukai’s Bujutsu Kyoin Yoseisho (‘martial art teachers training school’ – this was later renamed to the Budo Senmon Gakko, or ‘Busen’ for short). At 18, he was the by far the youngest student in the first group. Here he studied kendo under Naito Takaharu. Naito’s kirikashi and kakarigeiko-centric keiko regime would shape not only Saimura’s physical kendo, but his attitude towards kendo itself.

(The first batch included Nakano Sosuke (20), and the next year Mochida Seiji (Moriji) would join (21). All 3 would become kendo leaders in the future, and all were awarded 10th dan. Although Mochida was older than Saimura, he was the kohai in the relationship as he entered the Yoseijo later.)

During his time in Kyoto he was infamous for his short temper and always getting into arguments. Eventually he was banished from the school and sent to Kyushu as a kendo teacher for 3 years (he was, essentially, exiled for his attitude). After this, however, he was invited back to the Yoseijo by Naito, and become a kendo instructor there.

In 1917 he retired his teaching position and moved to Tokyo in search of work. Here he lived with his wife and small children close to the breadline for many years while he built up his career. It took time, but eventually he would land teaching positions in Keishicho, the imperial police, Toyama Gakko (military), Waseda university (and accompanying schools), and the new Kokushikan senmon gakko (later, university). His influence, therefore, was large.

Saimura was the first of the Butokukai (i.e. Naito-trained) kenshi to become employed as a kendo teacher in Tokyo. At the time the style in Tokyo was said to be different:

1. As the dojo were small everyone fought at close distance;
2. Takano Sasaburo’s style of using a variety of techniques from different angles was the standard.

Saimura learnt his kendo in the bigger dojo found in Kansai and would launch attacks from a far distance. He also favoured a simpler, cleaner style of kendo, focusing mainly on men and tsuki. Saimura also taught differently – he basically brought Naito’s kirikaeshi/kakarigeiko-centric style to Tokyo (Mochida would arrive later at Noma dojo). It was due to these 2 factors that Saimura became as renowned as he did, leading him to be sought after and employed as a kendo teacher in the establishments listed above.

By the way, it’s worth noting that when Saimura first arrived in Tokyo he was surprised to find many dojo didn’t focus on kihon and had a lackadaisical approach to keiko. He was to be a leading figure in changing this attitude.

In the years leading up to WW2 Saimura would continue rotating around various dojo teaching kendo. He would also appear in all of the tenranjiai, as competitor, demonstrator, and judge.

After the reestablishment of kendo after the war Saimura became an honorary shihan to both Keishicho and Kokushikan, was awarded 10dan, and performed – with Mochida as his shidachi – kendo kata at the Tokyo Olympic Games.


Video

Saimura Goro vs Ogawa Kinnosuke (Tenranjiai, 1940):

Saimura Goro (uchidachi) and Mochida Seiji (date and location unknown, but presumably in the 1960s):


Anecdote

The ultranationalistic general Anami Korechika was appointed War Minister to a desperate Japan in April 1945. Five months later and Japan was finished. The cabinet met on the 14th of August and signed the surrender document. It just so happened that there was keiko at the army ministry dojo that very day. Anami, who has signed the surrender document earlier that day, turned up to do keiko with his sensei, Saimura. The next morning, he committed seppuku.


Source

剣聖十段斎村五郎・気の剣。スキージャーナル、1997発行。早瀬利之。

Budo and Breathing

About Iaido and Breathing: excerpts from “The Essence of Budo” by Kawakubo Takiji

Editors note: the following guest post/translation comes from Eric Spinelli based in Tokyo. Although the notes were put together for iai practitioners, the content here is also not only highly applicable for kendo people, but to all practitioners of Japanese martial arts.


About the Author

KAWAKUBO Takiji (1896 – 1985) studied Yamauchi-ha Muso Jikiden Eishin Ryu under SAKAGAMI Kameo, a student of UNO Mataji, in Nagasaki1. He held the rank and title of Iaido Hanshi, 10th dan and Kendo Kyoshi2.


Preface

These notes were written as a reference for the members of the Iaido Aikokai3. They cover the important breath control techniques as written in “The Essence of Budo”4 by Prof. Sato Tsuji, (Professor of Literature, Kogakkan University). Breath control has an incredibly deep connection with budo and it is my hope that you will read these notes thoroughly and make use of them in your practice.

-Kawakubo Takiji, Iaido Hanshi, April, 1978

Kokyu-ho (呼吸法, Breathing Techniques)

Iai and breathing techniques have an incredibly deep connection with each other. It is said that, “when exhaling, the body is true; when inhaling, the body is false.5”  Obtaining both truth and falsehood within one’s movements is of utmost importance. Practitioners of iai must practice breath control at the same time they practice iai technique.

Correct breathing techniques is tanden breathing. The following is a summary of the important parts of Prof. Sato’s “The Essence of Budo” and should be a reference for all iai practitioners.

By adjusting our breathing, we can tense6 our entire body and move in a fluid and lively manner. It is for this reason that breath control is important for iai.

Kikai-tanden (気海丹田7)

When the muscles of the lower abdomen are tensed, the seat of body’s power, the tanden, appears. The tanden is the tension of the muscles and appears only in the living body. It was not discovered through western medicine or academics because it cannot be found in a dissected body.

Defined broadly, the tanden is the front of the lower body, the abdominal muscles that can be tensed together. Defined more narrowly, it is where power gathers when the abdominal muscles are tensed.

This point is approximately three centimeters below the navel. The point above this is called the kikai. Inhaled breath fills the the kikai naturally and without effort but when it is exhaled, power is focused on the tanden below it.

The tanden is sometimes called the center of the body, but it is more accurately called the center of gravity. The center of gravity presides over the body, controlling the function and movement of the extremities. It performs all true movement in budo and other arts.

Tanden-sokuho (丹田息法, tanden breath technique)

Breath is what gives life to posture. Correct posture only has meaning when it is based upon correct breathing and correct posture follows naturally from correct breathing.

Let’s examine the human body’s breath. When sleeping lying down, the breath naturally enters the body, expanding the chest and upper abdomen.  As the breath is exhaled, those parts become empty. Both the inhalation and exhalation happen only in the upper body; the lower body does not participate. However, if the tanden is actualized when the body is upright and the hips are bearing the weight of the body, breathing can be done through the tensing and relaxing of the tanden.  When the tanden relaxes, air naturally is pulled into the center of the body. When the tanden tenses, this air is expelled from the center of the body8. If the breath does not pass through the center of the body, but only the upper body, the breath is the same as a sick or feeble person.

How to Breathe Deeply

Laughter demonstrates natural deep breathing, with the breath passing through the center of the body.  Consider the human lungs as a single vessel. When the chest is used in unfocused breathing, only twenty or thirty percent of the vessel is filled. Try emptying the chest, keeping the body straight and exhaling until you feel the chest muscles relax. Because there is still a lot of air left in the body, try laughing.  When you do so, you should feel a comfortable strength naturally filling a single point in the lower abdomen. The seat of this power is the tanden.

The tanden is described as three centimeters or 1.5sun below the navel but, in reality, it should not be defined from the outside of the body. Rather the tanden is the point you felt fill with strength when you laughed with an empty chest. Laughter is a sign of health. Humans laugh often when healthy and by purposely laughing more one’s health naturally improves.

Laughter occurs as convulsions. Let us examine this process. First, one fills the lower abdomen with strength, pushing the air out. Next, the strength in the abdomen lessens, pulling new air down into the bottom of the lungs.  The air flows in in an instant but in that short time the vessel is almost completely refilled. Laughter is an efficient form of deep breathing.  Breathing as if one is laughing, without convulsions, calmly and without pause, is tanden-soku (alternatively, tanden-kokyu). It is a form of deep breathing using the lower abdomen to exhale. It is the genuine kokyu-ho of zazen and seiza9, as well as all varieties of budo and other arts.

While standing upright, you must always extend the lower back and fill the lower abdomen with strength. At the same time you must keep tension in your center, specifically the lower abdomen, and quietly breath out. Keeping twenty or thirty percent of the air in your lungs, you should relax the lower abdomen. Because there is always an atmospheric pressure around you, air will flow into you naturally just as if you had loosened your grip on the bulb of a dropper10. This happens in an instant but, as mentioned above, an incredibly large amount of air is inhaled.

On a slightly different topic, it is necessary to always keep the external sphincter muscle of the anus contracted. In kyudo they teach, “keep your hole closed.” However, focusing on the anus is an uncomfortable, animalistic feeling. Instead you should put strength into the lower abdomen and the sphincter will contract proportionally and unconsciously.

Laughter is an action of exhalation but humans can discover the location of the tanden through the action of inhalation as well. Try swallowing your saliva. When you do your muscles contract towards your navel but, immediately after the saliva enters the stomach, the lower abdominal muscles clench tight, stopping the saliva there. The place where these muscles contract is the tanden11.

Exhalation is Truth, Inhalation is Falsehood

All true human action is performed while exhaling. The exhaled breath is the breath of a human realizing an action and when breathing out one is in an active kamae. In budo and other arts, exhalation is truth, inhalation is falsehood. A human’s upright body is a body in action and, while awake, exhalation should be the principle form of breathing. Inhalation is a natural, unconscious state.  It is a principle of budo that the change from stillness to action must start by breathing in and the principle movement must be brought to a finish while breathing out.

It is desirable to exhale for as long as possible. Breathing shallow breaths without strength in the hara, it is normal to take 17 or 18 breaths in one minute. The hurried breaths of a sick man are countless. When correct tanden breathing is practiced, one will take only seven or eight breaths in a minute, dropping to four or five with mastery. In zazen or budo, a person who has achieved complete harmony in his body will number one or two breaths per minute, or even less. It is said that in the Edo period, a famous spearman once walked the length of Ryogoku Bridge12 with just one breath.

One must not strain when breathing. In correct breathing there is no stopping or holding of the breath. The breath must flow out naturally.  With the lungs full to the bottom from correct breathing there is more air available than one might imagine and even a big, unwavering exhalation will continue for a long time.

Each of us can discover whether our exhalation is correct and the entire body is in harmony or if our exhalation is in discord and out of harmony. The first step is to focusing our awareness inward. If there is no stiffness or strain in the body when breathing out, the nasal passage opens and an indescribable, pleasant strength fills the lower abdomen. The second step is to feel the breath with the palm of the hand.  Correct breath comes out warm and gently.  Discordant breath comes out cold and rough.  In the past, practitioners of budo and zazen would place a candle in front of the nose and practiced tanden breathing so that the flame would not flicker.

When the method of correct breathing is mastered, neither the breath in nor the breath out should be able to be felt.  There should be only the tension and relaxation of breathing in and out. If the breath can be felt or heard, there is still some stiffness or strain in the body (for example, the chin muscles or oral cavity).

In contrast to the tension of exhalation, inhalation is a relaxation and should be done in the shortest possible amount of time. This relaxation, however, must not be a complete relaxation but a relaxation supported by tension.

The act of exhalation starts from the natural state of inhalation. Inhalation, however, is the opposite; it is born from a state of human effort and the tension of exhalation.  It starts with the lower back extended and strength filling the lower abdomen and the relaxing of that tension, but without releasing all of the strength.  To understand this method it may help to consider how one breathes while sprinting. It is necessary to put strength into the lower abdomen to run but breathing in can only be done by slightly relaxing that tension.

The Principles of Breathing

Having understood the correctness of and realizing the depth of logic of tanden breathing, let us now provide some additional support.

Even in the middle of physical exertion budo masters do not become short of breath nor does their breathing become rough. This is because the muscles throughout their entire body are settled in the correct position and because they regulate their diaphragm correctly.

The Diaphragm

The Japanese term for the diaphragm is oukakumaku (横隔膜, horizontal separating membrane). It gets its name from the fact that it separates the chest and abdominal cavities.  It is called a membrane but it is actually a thick, membrane-like layer of muscle. It is the only voluntary muscle among the internal organs and can be tensed at will. Those who aim to master correct breathing must first start by training the diaphragm. To do so, practice allowing the upper abdomen (solar plexus) to draw in as you exhale. It may help to place the hand on the solar plexus to feel the movement of the diaphragm.

If, as you breathe out, you tense the lower abdomen and relax the upper abdomen (solar plexus13), the lower abdomen will become round like a rubber ball. As the solar plexus depresses the navel will point upwards.  As you continue to breathe in and out, this round shape should not change but as you breathe out it should become harder.

When breathing using the tanden, the diaphragm should first move down as you breathe in and the ribcage should rise as air enters the body.  Next, as you breathe out, the ribs should lower as the diaphragm rises, pushing the air out of the lungs.

The Solar Plexus14 (Strengthening Character and Moral Sense)

Directly below the diaphragm in the abdominal cavity is the solar plexus nerve complex. his is a group of autonomic nerves the size of the thumb that receives instructions from the diencephalon15 to regulate the body. The solar plexus is such an important organ that, it is said that if the brain is the seat of knowledge, the solar plexus is the seat of moral sense.

Tanden breathing stimulates and trains the solar plexus, calming the nerves, and works to strengthen the character. This is one reason that budo and zazen aid in a person’s moral education.

In addition to the very real effects on efficiency of movement, as discussed above, focusing the whole body’s strength in the tanden invites a spiritual benefit as well.

The diaphragm is shaped like an arched ceiling. When one has put no strength in the abdomen and is, for example, surprised, the diaphragm contracts towards the chest cavity and presses up against the heart, pushing the apex of the heart against the chest wall causing the heart to beat faster. If the diaphragm can move up and down in a controlled manner the base of the heart can expand and the heart can pump slowly.  This reduces mental states such as anxiety, surprise, and fear. It is important to note that a calm and composed mental state is not achieved by the mind alone, but by correct posture and correct breathing. It must be build on the strong foundation of the physical body.

The Second Heart

Some call the diaphragm the second heart. The heart in the chest pumps blood through the arteries but the contractions of the diaphragm are incredibly important in returning the blood from the veins of the lower body to the heart.

Normal breathing is a matter of controlling the lungs. As you inhale the chest expands and the upper abdomen inflates.  As you exhale, the chest becomes empty and the upper abdomen collapses in. The lower abdomen is not involved at all. This is true of shallow breathing and surely also when sleeping laying down.

As mentioned above, when one wakes and stands upright, allowing tension to keep the body balanced, the tanden appears as the seat of the whole body’s strength. Because all true movement, without exception, must be generated from the tanden, the breath too must originate from the tanden.

Breathing from the chest and breathing from the tanden are completely the same. Breathing from the tanden, however, is incomparable with natural breathing in the amount of air that fills the lungs.

Tanden breathing is neither unnatural breathing nor reverse breathing. Rather, it follows natural breathing and takes the same form, but is one level higher and more efficient. It is the absolute correct way to breathe.

Because tanden breathing does not go against the natural order of breathing, with the exception of sleeping, it should be possible to do all day without issue. It is in fact the best thing you can do for your health.

The function of breathing is to absorb oxygen from the air and expel the carbon dioxide gas generated inside the body. If one’s breathing is shallow, the oxygen in the blood decreases and,  carbon dioxide combines chemically with water and builds up inside the body, decreasing the life force of the body’s cells.

Focus on Breathing Out

Normal air is made up of over twenty percent oxygen and the air humans exhale is approximately sixteen percent oxygen. Our bodies absorb the four percent difference. The air we exhale, however, contains over 100% more carbon dioxide than normal air (0.04% in air and 4.4% in exhaled breath).  We can induce from this that if we breathe a large amount of air into the lungs, as long as we are exhaling, the body continues to absorb oxygen.  We should thus focus only on exhaling and expelling carbon dioxide. In budo and zazen it is unnecessary to think about inhalation and important to focus instead on our exhalation.

The Importance of Deep Breathing

The lungs are made up of millions of microscopic alveoli. The inner surface of the lung that makes contact with air is 56m2, twenty-five times greater than the outer surface area of the body. This is half the size of a tennis court. The greater portion of alveoli are unused in normal, shallow breathing and remain unexposed to fresh air. This is why it is important to breath deeply.

Deep breathing consists of an inhalation component and an exhalation component. A naturally occurring inhalation component of deep breathing is yawning.  When yawning the lungs fill completely and there is a feeling of the kikai (below the navel) filling as well. Professor Sato gives this type of breathing the name kikai-soku16. Inducing yawns throughout the day, inhaling deeply into the lower abdomen and stretching the body, has health benefits.

Likewise, a naturally occurring exhalation component of deep breathing is laughter. Here air is pushed out by tension of the tanden, the point below the kikai.  When the tanden relaxes, air is sucked in. This is called tanden-soku.  It is the breath of budo, zazen, and seiza17. Tanden-soku is the same deep breathing as laughter but steady, without the convulsions.

Signed and sealed:

Kawakubo Takiji
Muso Jikiden Eishin Ryu Iaido, Hanshi 9th dan18
Third Month19, Showa 5320


Footnotes

1. From “Kyoto Yamauchi-ha Muso Jikiden Eishin-Ryu Iaijutsu” by Yamakoshi Masaki and Tsukimoto Kazutake. back

2. From Kawakubo Takiji’s own signatures. back

3. The Kodaira City Iaido Aikokai (小平市居合道愛好会) in Tokyo Prefecture. back

4. Japanese title: 武道の神髄, published by 日本教文社 in Oct., 1977. back

5. 実, “truth” or “substance”, and 虚, “falsehood” or “emptiness”, appear as polar opposites in the philosophy of Zhuangzi (4th c. BC).  In kendo and jukendo, these same words can refer to the absence or presence of an opening (隙, suki). back

6. “Tense” and “tension” (緊張) is used throughout this translation.  It refers to the prolonged or continuous contraction of muscles and tendons.  Its opposite is “relax” or “relaxed” (弛緩). back

7. Kawakubo gives the following footnote:

“Kikai” is a term used in traditional Chinese medicine. It is a vital spot located 1sun below the navel.

“Tan” is the Taoist elixir of immortality; “den” is the earth that creates this elixir.  The tanden is an acupuncture point 1sun5bun below the navel. The tanden is between the kikai and the ishi-mon, a point 2sun below the navel. back

8. 正中, the true, three dimensional center of the body. back

9. Seiza (静座) here does not refer to the Japanese sitting position, but “sitting calmly and quietly” for meditation, etc. back

10. Pasteur pipette or eyedropper back

11. Kawakubo writes heso-shita-tan (臍下丹, tan below the navel).  This is simply a graphic description of the tanden. back

12. Ryogoku Bridge in Tokyo has a modern span of 164.5m and a historical span of 94ken (~170.9m). back

13. Here Kawakubo uses the Japanese term 鳩尾 (mizo-ochi), also known as the 水月 (suigetsu).  This is the point of the depression on the surface of the chest directly above the solar plexus nerve complex.  Mizo-ochi literally references a pigeon tail, similar in shape to the depression of the chest. back

14. Here Kawakubo uses the term 太陽神経 and 太陽神経叢 (taiyou-shinkei-(sou)), terms used for the solar plexus nerve complex itself.  This term literally references the sun, as does the English term, because of the radiating nature of the nerve fibers. back

15. The interbrain (間脳) which connects the cerebrum to the brain stem. back

16. 気海息 or “kikai breathing”.  See footnote 5 for a definition of “kikai”. back

17. See footnote 9 back

18. Although Kawakubo later obtained the rank of 10th dan (seen in signatures from Showa 59 (1984)), at the time of this writing, he held the rank of Hanshi 9th dan. back

19. Kawakubo writes 弥生月 (yayoi-tsuki, month of new life),  the third month of the traditional Japanese lunar calendar. This may or may not correspond to March. back

20. The year 1978 back