Kendo no kata creators

In 1906 the Butokukai made its first research into making a set of standardised kata for teaching its students (standardised kata for teaching had already been made in Tokyo shihan-gakko – Takano Sasaburo‘s gogyo-no-kata – and Keishicho – keishi-ryu). 17 members were selected from various ryu-ha, and a set of 3 kata were created called the Butokukai kenjutsu kata (武徳会剣術型). The individual kata names were: TEN (天 heaven), CHI (地 earth), and JIN (人 human). For some unknown reason, the kata were not popular or were not implemented successfully, and they disappeared.

The photo below was taken on the 10th of August 1906 and shows the people involved in the creation of the kata. Names are given below.

Names of those involved are listed here (Note that the source is not 100% if all these names are accurate):

Front row from left-right: Negishi Shingoro, Abe, Sakabe, Shibue, Watanabe, Mitsuhashi, Tokuno, Naito Takaharu, Yano (all hanshi barring the last two). Back row from left-right: Ota, [unknown], Minabe, Nakayama Hakudo, Okuda, Yamada, Sayama, Yamazato.

A new impetus for kata standardisation occurred In 1911 when (after years of lobbying) kendo and judo were added to the school physical education syllabus. That same year the Butokukai restarted its kata standardisation programme with the aim of creating kata to teach in schools. There was a lot of information published about the sequence of events that led up to the final presentation of the kata in 1912, but some of the information in reports was abbreviated it seems, including the names of all the participants in the establishment of the kata.

Takizawa Kozo hanshi did research on the subject and the following is his compilation of the entire members of the kendo no kata standardisation board (剣道形制定委員氏名). This list will probably only interest those people that wish to research more into the formative stages of modern kendo, and those with an interest in koryu and its impact on kendo. At any rate, it is presented below.

Notes:
– people with an * next to them are those that are usually credited with the creation of the dai nippon kendo no kata and are pictured above;
– those with a # were also on the board of the earlier Butokukai kenjutsu kata;
– first names in Japanese are notorious (even random) to read, so I’ve omitted them when I was unsure;
– a list attempting to do the same can be viewed online here.

[ Shogo. Prefecture/Representing. Name. Style. ]
Hanshi. Tokyo. Negishi Shingoro. Shinto munen-ryu #*
Hanshi. Tokyo. Shingai Tadatsu. Tamiya-ryu/Shinken-ryu
Hanshi. Saga. Tsuji Junpei. Shingyoto-jikishinkage-ryu *
Hanshi. Kumamoto. Wada. Shinkage-ryu
Hanshi. Nagasaki. Shibue. Shinto munen-ryu #
Kyoshi. Butokukai. Naito Takaharu. Hokushin itto-ryu #*
Kyoshi. Butokukai. Mona Tadashi. Suifu-ryu (+Hokushin itto-ryu) *
Kyoshi. Butokukai. Minatobe Kuniharu. Yamaguchi-ryu #
Kyoshi. Tokyo shihan gakko. Takano Sasaburo. Itto-ryu *
Kyoshi. Tokyo shihan gakko. Kimura. Jikishinkage-ryu
Kyoshi. Kyoto. Ota. Jikishinkage-ryu #
Kyoshi. Kyoto. Yano. Jikishinage-ryu #
Kyoshi. Tokyo. Shibata. Kurama-ryu
Kyoshi. Tokyo. Nakayama Hakudo. Shinto munen-ryu #*
Kyoshi. Hyogo. Takahashi. Mugai-ryu
Kyoshi. Aiichi. Tanaka. Hokushin itto-ryu
Kyoshi. Ibaragi. Ozawa Ichiro. Hokushin itto-ryu
Kyoshi. Saitama. Hoshino. Itto-ryu
Kyoshi. Yamagata. Koseki. Muto-ryu
Kyoshi. Nigata. Uemura. Kishin-ryu (貴心流).
Kyoshi. Yamaguchi. Ninomiya. Shinkage-ryu
Kyoshi. Kochi. Kawasaki Zensaburo. Mugai-ryu
Kyoshi. Kagoshima. Sasaki. Suifu-ryu
Kyoshi. Fukuoka. Asano. Asayama ichiden-ryu
Kyoshi. Taipei. Toyoyama. Shingyoto-ryu

6 members: Itto-ryu (closely related variants).
3 members: Jikishinkage-ryu, Shinto-munen-ryu.
2 members: Mugai-ryu, Suifu-ryu, Shingyoto-ryu.
1 member: Asayama ichiden-ryu, Kurama-ryu, Tamiya-ryu
Shinkage-ryu, Yamaguchi-ryu, Shingyoto-jikishinkage-ryu, Shin-ken-ryu, Kishin-ryu.


Sources

This is mostly based on an article found in 思斉館滝澤道場 創立30周年記念誌(非商品) which in turn is built of the following references:

剣道五十年。 庄宗光。時事通信社。
剣道五百年史。富永堅吾。
武芸流派大事典。線谷雪・山田忠史編。東京こピイ出版部。
方法一刀流。高野弘正。講談社。

Other sources:
剣道日本2011年300号。

Takano Sasaburo (1862-1950) 高野佐三郎

The following is a bio of the person that can be considered one of the fathers (if not the father) of kendo as it exists today. I spend a lot of my time either reading his books, or reading books of others that trained under him or were influenced him in one way or another. I think if most people trace their kendo history back a couple of generations they will find a Takano connection. Despite this, there is almost no information about him nor his writing available in English… save on kenshi247.net! Hopefully, over time, we can help spread more information about him and his influence.


Early life

Takano Mitsumasa

Takano Sasaburo was born in 1862 in what is now called Chichibu city, in Saitama prefecture. His family worked as local silk inspectors (i.e. duties and tax) and also provided lodgings for travellers. It was his grandfather Mitsumasa (Sakichiro) who would have the greatest influence on his life.

Mitsumasa was born in 1802 and became a top Ono-ha itto-ryu student of Nakanishi Chubei Tanemasa, who had been a direct disciple of the 4th Ono-ha soke, Ono Tadaichi. He received a menkyo in the style and worked as han kenjutsu instructor in a military encampment (Musashinokuni, Oshihan) for an unknown period of time. He also had a small dojo in his home, near Chichibu Shrine.

(Please note – at the time Nakanishi Chubei, Takano Mitsumasa, and Sasaburo, would refer to their kenjutsu as “itto-ryu” or “Ono-ha itto-ryu,” but at some point over the years the official designation of the style of Ono-ha passed through the Nakanishi family via Takano Mitsumasa/Sasaburo has come to be called “Nakanishi-ha itto-ryu.”)

As soon as Mitsumasa found out that his daughter (Sasaburo’s mother) was pregnant, he ordered her to come and watch practise at his dojo. Thus it could be said that Sasaburo’s training began at zero. Mitsumasa’s enthusiasm never faltered, and he began to train Sasaburo’s himself from the age of 3, often coaxing the young child into kata practise by offering sweets.

By the age of 5 Sasaburo was able to demonstrate all of the basic 50 itto-ryu kata in front of the domain chief when he came around on a tour of inspection.

Mitsumasa’s training of Sasaburo continued over the years, often with some unusual methods – putting beans on the dojo floor, practising on slopes, in the water, or at night, etc. Mitsumasa also demanded that Sasaburo face towards the sun in the morning and open his mouth widely so as to be able to drink in the heavens, believing that the power/spirit of space and the gods would soak into their bodies.

By the time Sasaburo was 10 years old he was able to beat older boys of 15 and 16, and by the age of 17/18 his ability saw him nicknamed “Chichibu no kotengu” (a literal translation of 秩父の小天狗 is impossible, but they basically called him the strongest youth in the area. Tengu were mythical creatures with supposed powers in swordsmanship).

The turning point

In 1879, at the age of 17/18, he took part in a kenjutsu shiai (as they were often called at the time) in his grandfathers place, and faced the 31 year old Okada Sadagoro. Okada was a renowned kenshi and had trained in both Araki-ryu and Hokushin itto-ryu, and currently served as a kenjutsu/gekkiken instructor in what is now Gunma prefecture. Sasaburo used his favoured 4.5 shinai (at that time there were no rules for shinai weight or length) and fought in one handed jodan.

By his own account, Sasaburo didn’t fear Okada, and attacked him many times. However Okada would never accept being struck and used every opportunity he could to tsuki Sasaburo again and again. Eventually Sasaburo’s hakama was covered in blood and the match was stopped. Many of the onlookers sympathised with Sasaburo so the match was declared a draw. However Sasaburo saw this as a humiliating defeat. By the time the young man got home he had decided on a course of action: go to Tokyo, train hard, then get his revenge on Okada.

After being in the capital for a short time, Sasaburo was introduced to and ended up training in Yamaoka Tesshu’s dojo, Shumpukan. After about 2 months of training Tesshu approached him and said:

“Well, you are a mysterious young man. Normally people who come to train here from the countryside don’t even manage to last a week. There must be something of significance bothering you. Spit it out.”

Takano replied:

“Its not that; I am just here for the strict keiko.”

Tesshu had lunch with Takano and the young boy explained the story in full. Tesshu told him that Okada was no longer his enemy (i.e. Takano’s skill now surpassed Okita), and he should seek his revenge immediately. Sasaburo called on Okada but was surprised to have his adamant demand of a rematch turned down politely. Try as he might there would be no rematch, and he returned to Shumpukan unavenged. This result was exactly as Tesshu expected.

Although Sasaburo only trained at Shumpukan for around 3 months, the whole episode proved to be a turning point in Takano’s life – had he acted out his revenge perhaps things would have gone from bad to worse. His meeting with Tesshu set the wheels for his future in motion.

(There is a slight break in the narrative here, as I can’t uncover information as to what Takano was doing in between this time (1879) and his grandfather Mitsumasa’s death in 1884. Sasaburo would have been around 18-25 during this time. Upon his grandfathers death Sasaburo took over Mitsumasa’s business (and presumably his dojo as well) and ran it until 1886).

Work

In 1886 – by the recommendation of Tesshu – the then 24 year old Sasaburo became a gekkiken (kendo) instructor for the fledgling keishicho, and was stationed at at Motomachi police station. This station master at Motomachi loved gekkiken and made all of the 180 officers practise. They would be split into two groups of 90 each and made to practise in rotation everyday. Members at this time included kenshi who had been involved in the Bakamatsu period disturbances, and had fought in the Satsuma rebellion, i.e. kenshi that had been involved in real sword fighting. Keiko was therefore severe. Sasaburo would remark “it was rare to go to asageiko and be able to eat lunch” (i.e. the training was so violent that you physically couldn’t eat).

Once a month all the police stations in Tokyo would get together and compete (gekkikenkai). Sasaburo not only made a name for himself during these shiai, but also won competitions in front of the Emperor (Tenran Shiai). Due to his success at these competitions Sasaburo would rise to become one of the foremost kenshi in keishicho.

In 1888 he was ordered to work in Saitama police HQ and moved to Urawa city with his family. The next year he began to teach kendo in a police training institute.

In 1890 he built his dojo, Meishinkan, on the grounds of his fathers business and left the police. The Urawa Meishinkan would serve to be the HQ dojo for a network of branch dojos in the prefecture.

(Note that I found two dates quoted for the building of the first (Urawa) Meishinkan: 1888 and 1890. I think the latter is probably correct. I read a figure of between 39-41 Meishinkan branches, and student numbers ranging from 6-10,000 (including school/university students and police), though I am not sure how accurate these figures are.)

In 1895 the Butokukai was founded and Sasaburo entered the first Butokusai (Kyoto Taikai) as a Tokyo representative. He fought and won 2 shiai against Izawa (Kyoto) and Takagi (Tokushima). The following year he beat Asano (Fukuoka) and Koseki (Shiga), and was awarded Seirensho, a mark of his ability (only 15 people had the honour).

In 1897 he used a substitute school building and opened the “Kendo kyojuho kenkyujo Meishinkan honbu” (Kendo pedagogy and research institute, Meishinkan HQ). The first keiko took place on the 16th of October 1897. Keishicho gekkiken instructors Horikawa and Tokuno started by demonstrating some kata, after which 10 bouts of demonstration matches were held before keiko began.

Instructor

In the 1902 Butokusai Sasaburo’s performance was so good he was awarded a famous katana. 100 kenshi were selected to take part in a large All-Japan Bujutsu Taikai the next year in Osaka, and here Sasaburo was elected MVP, earning a gold medal and bogu from the emperor. His fame was spreading.

In November 1907 it was finally decided that judo and gekkiken (kendo) would become a school subject. There was a distinct lack of teachers of both at this point, so there was a need to train more quicker. At this time, Tokyo Shihan Gakko’s principle Jigoro Kano (the inventor of Judo) asked the gekkiken department boss – Minegishi – to find an instructor for the school (“shihan gakko” or “higher normal schools” were schools that educated male school teachers). Minegishi sat down and wrote a list of the top kenshi in the country, and invited each to the school to fence the gekkiken students. If they passed this physical test, they would be invited to sit a more formal interview. Sasaburo came to the school on the 19th of March 1908 and was selected almost immediately 3 days later on the 21st (an indication of the impression he made). At the time Sasaburo was 47 years old and kyoshi.

Due to the popularity of kendo in universities and schools at this time Sasaburo would also go on to teach at other places, including becoming the shihan of Waseda University in 1910. It was around this time that he began his research into creating a kendo curriculum to be used in schools and universities. The culmination of his research would be be published in two books, “Kendo” (1915) then “Kendo Kyohan” (1930). His impact on kendo teaching pedagogy cannot be rivalled in the history of kendo.

In 1911, after working hard on it for 10 years, Saitama Butokuden was finally completed behind Saitama prefectural office. The same year he was selected to be part of the committee to begin research on creating a standard kendo kata (the kata was unveiled in 1917).

In 1913, at the age of 52, he was awarded HANSHI from the butokukai. This was normally restricted to those over 60 but occasionally exceptions were made for those with talent (e.g. Naito Takaharu).

In 1915 Sasaburo became the department head of the kendo section of Tokyo Shihan Gakko, and would become a professor the following year. In 1916 he was the only “normal school kendo speciality professor” in the entire country.

In 1918 he built the first Shudogakuin, a kendo institute that would spawn branches around the country and where many influential kendoka would pass through (Nyui Yoshihiro, Mochida Moriji, Takizawa Kozo, etc). He chose the name Shudogakuin (修道学院) as it reflected his desire to train people in “Bun bu ryodo” (文武両道), or physically and mentally. i.e. his aim was not just to create strong kenshi, but good/educated people too. Secretly, it is said that his ideal was Saito Yakuro’s Renpeikan (a bakumatsu period dojo in Edo).

Sasaburo continued to work at Tokyo Shihan Gakko until 1936 (75 years old). Even after he quit being a professor there, and despite his age, he kept teaching kendo at the school’s dojo until forced to stop by impending war.

Sasaburo died on the 31st of December 1950. He was 89 years old.


Source

高野佐三郎剣道遺稿集 (剣道日本プレミアム) 。堂本 昭彦 (著)。


Note

Please remember I am not a professional translator, nor have studied Japanese at university nor in an institution. Any errors in fact, misunderstandings in the reading of the text, errors in translations, etc, are all my own. I can but apologise in advance.

Takizawa Kozo hanshi

“Commencing in a moment, the final of the 70th imperial guards competition. The competitors: Takizawa Kozo kyoshi, Abe Saburo kyoshi; the shinpan: omote shinpan Mochida Seiji, ura shinpan Saimura Goro and Ogawa Kinnosuke.”

At the same time that the announcers voice rang out in the packed Saineikan dojo, the two competitors and the three shinpan faced the throne and bowed deeply to the emperor and empress.

“HAJIME !”

Both competitors stand up and kiai with all their might. The small Takizawa adjusts his kensen slightly up to make up for the difference in height between him and the taller Abe, who lowers his for the same reason. With their kensen moving rhythmically, they slowly close distance. You can feel the pressure radiate out from both mens shinai, like electricity.


Takizawa brothers in Barcelona

Over a few years, Takizawa Kenji sensei (kyoshi, 8dan) has been making trips to Europe, and has met a few of my friends (and probably lots of kenshi247 readers) while abroad. Although I don’t know him personally (yet), I have been training with his younger brother (Takizawa Masaya sensei, kyoshi, 7dan) for the past few years. Recently both brothers went to Barcelona for a kendo seminar and this inspired me to introduce something about their highly influential father to kenshi247.net readers.

Please note that I got Takizawa Kenji and Masaya sensei’s permission to write this article, including translation and use of published as well as private material.


Takizawa Kozo: a short biography

Takizawa Kozo was born as the third son into a farming family on the 20th of October, Meiji 43 (1910), in Atsugi city, Kanagawa prefecture. He started kendo with a local group whilst still in primary school. Despite his short stature, from a young age he began to be noticed for his kendo ability (he was only 160cm’s as an adult). At the age of 19, he was taking part in a competition and defeated 14 opponents one after another (kachinuki shiai were commonplace at that time). This caught the eye of one of the shinpan – Wada Yoshiharu. Wada was a student of Takano Sasaburo’s at Shudogakuin and – impressed by the young mans ability – asked him whether he would like to take up kendo seriously at Shudogakuin. Kozo immediately replied “onegaishimasu!”

Although he started travelling back-and-forward to Shudogakuin at 19, he was forced to suspend this for 2 years, so it wasn’t until he was 21 when he entered the dojo officially as a live-in-student. For 4 years he lived in the dojo (cleaning, washing, and cooking as well as practising) and studied kendo and itto-ryu under Takano Sasaburo. Keiko at the dojo was rough, with people being routinely shoved to the floor violently and water thrown over them to be revived. Many kenshi that came from the outside to practise (i.e. not full-time, live in students) were shocked at the roughness of the dojo and fled.

In 1936 (presumably due to Takano’s efforts) Kozo entered the Imperial guards and his main place of practise became Saineikan in the imperial grounds. This time in the imperial guards kendo history is referred to as its renaissance period, as they had a group of strong kenshi and had lots of shiai success. Although he now practised at a different dojo he would remark years later that it was his years at Shudogakuin that he forged his basics.

After many years of working as an imperial guard, he was transferred in 1953 to Police HQ with the job of re-formulating police kendo for the new period.

Just prior to being transferred out of the imperial guards, he had his three sons start kendo at Saineikan. At that time they were 9yrs old (Takizawa Kenji, now kyoshi 8dan), 6yrs old (Takizawa Masaya, now kyoshi 7dan), and the third was still in kindergarden. His sons continued practising at Saineikan almost daily up to and through junior high school (15 years old).

In 1956, he took part in the 70th Imperial Guards shiai, which was marked as being the first tenran-shiai after the war. This story – which opened this article – continues below in the next section.

Around these years he took part in two consecutive olympics as coach of the Japanese marksmanship team. A member of his team would get a medal in both competitions (more on this below).

From the mid-60s Kozo became a highly sought after teacher, and took up kendo teaching posts at Tokyo University, Kanagawa prefecture kendo association, and the police academy, as well as other places.

In 1969 he was appointed the leader of a group of sensei that travelled to Europe in order to popularise and spread kendo. He was influential in starting the European Kendo Federation and served as the vice president of the British Kendo Association for a time, and influenced a generation of Europe-based kenshi, not in the least France’s Yoshimura sensei.

In 1970 he built and opened his own dojo in his home town of Atsugi city called Shiseikan Takizawa dojo (思斉館滝澤道場). The name “Shisei” was given to Kozo sensei by the first president of the All Japan Kendo Federation, Kimura. The meaning comes from a phrase found in the Analects of Confucius – 見賢思斉 (けんけんしせい) – “if you see something/someone good or wise, you should strive to do or to become the same way.”

In May 1987 Kozo sensei was awarded his 9dan at the Kyoto Taikai and exclaimed:

「いよいよこれから本番だよ。。。」
“ok, now its time for real kendo to begin…”

In July of the same year, just 2 months after receiving 9dan, he died of cancer.

「小学校しか出ていない俺がここまでやって来た。楽しい一生だったよ」
“I only graduated primary school and look how far I’ve come. Its been an enjoyable life!”


70th Imperial Guards shiai, Showa 31 (1956). The first post-war tenran-shiai.

(Continued from the introduction, this is a liberal translation of an account of the final by the chronicler Tanabe)

As the final was happing I was speaking to Takizawa’s defeated partner from the prior round: “What about this Takizawa, he seems to have enough ability, but he’s unlucky in shiai and sometimes loses to people he’s stronger than?” He replied “If he thinks about that he’s done for.” Actually, looking at his kendo today there seems to be something different than usual.

After the shiai I spoke to Takizawa about it and he said: “Actually, I’ve been training athletes for the pistol event in the olympics and of course attending gasshuku with them. I do the same warmups as the guys, and so I’ve become a lot more flexible than I have ever been. This made me think “I can do it.”

Watching the shiai now, you can see that this new flexibility has given him confidence… but we can’t forget the youthful vigour that makes Abe as strong as he is.

Both competitors are out on the dojo floor exchanging men attacks. Suddenly, Takizawa feints a men attack and changes to dou… at what looks at the exact same time Abe strikes a large men… “DOU!” “MEN!”

“MEN-ARI” calls Mochida sensei; its Abe’s ippon.

With Mochida sensei’s call of “NIHON-ME!” both kenshi press forward. Takizawa’s kiai is as load and strong as ever. The atmosphere in Saineikan is electric and you can see both competitors faces are red with concentration, almost as if they are on fire.

As the match continues you can see that – whilst Takizawa remains concentrated – Abe’s tiredness shows through. Takizawa’s concentration is great. However, if things are left as they are, time will run out and he will lose. He pushes forward, advancing, pressuring Abe, who has now resorted to protecting himself more and more.

3 minutes… 4 minutes…
30 seconds left… 20 seconds left…

With Abe only having to last a few more seconds Takizawa drives in and attacks… MEN…

“MEN-ARI” shouts Mochida sensei; with only seconds away from defeat Takizawa takes an ippon back to equalise the score.

The shiai goes into encho, but Takizawa has already climbed over a difficult mountain to get this far, and is now going down the other side. Tired, Abe is continually on the defensive. Where did such energy come from such a short kenshi? Takizawa presses on his attack and attacks… KOTE!

“KOTE-ARI” shouts Mochida sensei, and the winner is decided.

Today was Takizawa’s victory. As everyone stood up for applause the kenshi bowed to each other then faced the emperor and empress. As they bowed low to them, the emperor and empress stand up to offer their appreciation.

The time was 3:06pm, on 12th of May 1956.


Tenran shiai: epilogue

(the following are Kozo sensei’s own words, translated liberally by myself)

For two days and nights after winning the competition my sempai and my friends celebrated with me, and everything was like a dream. On the evening of the third day after the shiai, I got a call from the Police Medical Clinic asking me to come down immediately for a consultation. They didn’t say anything about holding any celebration for me, so I found myself standing in front of the doctor with a dubious look upon my face. A few days earlier had been our annual medical checkup and they had found something strange in the results. They showed me the x-ray from the day and tried to explain what they found: tuberculosis. I didn’t shrug off their explanations but I wondered if someone with such a disease could win a tenran shiai. I was shocked at what he was trying to tell me, but I didn’t say anything.

The next day the clinic called again: “since it seems that you don’t believe what we told you yesterday, come down today and we will do another x-ray. The results of this 2nd test we will report to the police hospital.”

6 days after I won the tenran shiai I found myself in the main police hospital facing a doctor holding my x-ray and explaining. Even though my body was rigid, I found myself shaking: “We have found an erosion/cavity of about 1 centimetre, we need to take care of it” was the sentence handed down. Against the weight of evidence that the doctors gave, even though being stubborn and strong willed, I had nothing to do but hang my head. The light feet I walked on until recently suddenly became heavy, and I trod home wearily. There I faced my wife and told her about the diagnosis. She was surprised and sad, and kept quiet for a while. Finally she said:

“Humans can only be what they are…. lets look after your health”

With these words it was decided.

Here was I, still drunk on the win of the tenran shiai a few days earlier suddenly yanked into a different world. I started thinking about my recuperation, my family, my job, etc and I realised I was buried in troubles.

Four days before I had been called to the police bureau director’s office and was given a monetary gift for winning the tenran shiai. Now I went to the same bureau, and from the same director was ordered to take medical and recuperation leave.

(Kozo sensei underwent an operation and was in recuperation for a year before re-starting work – and kendo – with the police)


Olympic sports pistol and kendo

Most people who seriously study kendo have no interest in seeing the art as part of the modern olympics. Its surprising then to find that a hanshi 9dan like Takizawa Kozo sensei could be said to be the first – and possibly the only – person who coached someone using kendo pedagogy into getting an olympic medal.

Only a week after winning the tenran shiai mentioned above, Kozo sensei came down with tuberculosis. After undergoing serious surgery and a year of rest, he restarted his work in the police as a teacher in the Education branch. Here they taught kendo, judo, taihojutsu, pistol, etc. Around that time the olympic rifle association of Japan contacted the police and asked them if they would be willing to train athletes for the pistol event of the olympics (pistols can only legally held by police in Japan). Despite there being no current programme for this in Japan, the police readily took up the task, and Kozo sensei was tasked with the job.

From this time, Kozo sensei could be spotted every morning reading and studying foreign language pistol manuals (there were none available in Japanese at the time). He also collected policemen from around the country who were said to be good with a pistol and organised gasshuku’s. It was here that the 21yr old policeman from Fukuoka, Yoshikawa, was discovered. At one time, the young Takizawa Kenji sensei was told this from Yoshikawa:

「君のお父さんは射撃の選手に剣道や宮本武蔵の話ばかりする。ピストルの指導もしてくれるように言っといて!」
“(At training camps) your dad keeps talking about kendo and Miyamoto Musashi etc… ask him to teach us how to shoot!!”

Kozo sensei would give his “shooting” advice like this:

「ただ撃ちゃ当たるちゅうもんじゃないよ」
“Its not about just pulling the trigger and hitting the target.”

「引き金を引く前が大事なんだ」
“What happens before you pull the trigger is the most important thing.”

「構えを作らなきゃダメだ」
“You must have a good kamae”

During training Kozo sensei would ofter remark:

「そこで武蔵は考えた」
“That was Musashi thinking”

Yoshikawa was selected for the Rome olympics in 1960. The pistol discipline requires athletes to shoot their 60 shots within 3 hours. After taking time and shooting about 30 shots, Yoshikawa wasn’t on good form. At that time an official slipped him a note: it was from Kozo sensei. Opening it, it read: “That was Musashi thinking.” With this one note from his coach, Yoshikawa took 4 or 5 breathes, relaxed himself, and re-focused. He came away with the silver medal in the event (it was the first time a Japanese person was awarded a medal in the event).

In the 1964 olympics, the emperor came to watch the pistol event. Under pressure to perform Yoshikawa’s timing went astray. At that time the official slipped him a note: “That was Musashi thinking.” He imagined Kozo sensei berating him strongly: “Give up trying to get a medal? What the hell have you been trying so hard this last 4 years for anyway? You have 30 shots left; show them your true self.” Furukawa reports that he couldn’t remember anything about his last 30 shots. It was almost as if he were a robot. In what he claims is a miracle, he was awarded a bronze medal.

Yoshikawa still has the note(s) that Kozo sensei passed to him.

Kozo sensei said this on pistol-kendo connection:

「ただ撃ちゃあいいっていうもんじゃない。その前に体の構えと心の構えを作らなきゃ絶対に当たらない。そこのところは剣道となに一つ違うところがなっかた。だからぜんぶ剣道論理で指導した。」

“It’s not just about hitting. If you don’t prepare your spirit and a good a kamae before, you will never hit your target. In this way, there is not a single difference between shooting and kendo. This is why I taught marksmanship using kendo pedagogy. “


A couple of teaching anecdotes

The young Takizawa brothers were taught this from their father as children:

「お城を攻めるときには正面から攻めるばかりじゃダメだ。正面がダメなら裏に回って攻めると簡単んに勝つことができる。だから裏口は勝手口ということだ。」

“When attacking a castle you shouldn’t attack only the main gate. If the main gate is strong you should go round to the rear and attack there, then you will gain victory easily. Thus its said that the rear-attack is the window to victory.”

Since the young brothers practised kendo in the grounds of Edo castle (or what remained of it) it was easy for them to imagine the scenario. Put in kendo terms it means rather than relying on strength alone to attack your opponent straight on, you could seme kote and attack men, or seme men and attack dou, use small movements to seme but attack big, seme to the omote but attack to the right, etc. In other words, allow your body and spirit to move freely and at will.

When Takizawa Kenji sensei was compiling Sheiseikan’s 30th anniversary book he stumbled on the following teaching of this fathers:

一、勝とうと思わず無心で戦う。
二、とんなことがあっても引かない。機を見て打って出る。
三、気合でも負けない、大きな声を出す。
四、勝負が長引いたら捨身わざを出す。

1. Don’t think about winning, just fight with mushin.
2. Whatever happens don’t retreat. Look for the chance and attack.
3. Don’t even be defeated by your kiai, always have a loud shout.
4. If a shiai/fight is long and drawn out then attack with abandon (sutemi).

A finally interesting anecdote comes from Takizawa Kenji sensei after he passed his 6dan. He approached his father to ask for advice: what books should he read to advance his understanding of kendo? Kozo sensei read a lot of books and pulled a pile out to give to his son. At that time he gave this advice:

「本を読むより、稽古した方が分かる。まずは稽古だ!」
“Rather than read books, you’ll understand (kendo) better if you you just practise. First is keiko !”


Takizawa Kozo sensei timeline

Meiji 43 (1910) – Born in Atsugi city, Kanagawa prefecture;
Showa 7 (1932) – entered Shudogakuin and Takano Sasaburo became his sensei;
Showa 11 (1936) – awarded 4dan at Shidogakuin (July); entered the imperial guards and started practising at Saineikan (November);
Showa 12 (1937): awarded renshi;
Showa 15 (1940) – became the dept. head of the imperial guards;
Showa 18 (1943) – awarded kyoshi;
Showa 28 (1953) – transferred to the police with the mission to
re-formulate police kendo;
Showa 29 (1954) – he started an olympic marksmanship speciality course and
trained its athletes. From his work here he was selected at the
Japanese team marksmanship coach for two olympics – Rome and Tokyo. In
both of these Olympics one of his athletes got a bronze medal in the
free pistol event;
Showa 31 (1956) – awarded 7dan; won the 70th imperial guards shiai held
in front of the emperor;
Showa 42 (1967): awarded 8dan; became shihan for Tokyo University’s athletic dept. (later, its honourary shihan), as well as becoming a lecturer at the police academy, Kanagawa prefecture police shihan etc;
Showa 44 (1969) – awarded hanshi; he was leader of a group sent by the ZNKR to Europe
in order to introduce and popularise kendo there (he was to be
influential in the founding of the EKF, and served as the first vice
president of the BKA)
Showa 45 (1970) – he opened up his own dojo called Shiseikan in his home town;
Showa 62 (1987) – awarded 9dan (May); he died of cancer at the age of 76 (July). He was hanshi, kyudan.


Sources

思斉館滝澤道場 創立30周年記念誌。平成12年発行。非売品。 初代館長藩士九段瀧澤光三。
思斉館滝澤道場創立40年記念。平成22年発行。非売品。滝澤建治。
剣道日本2010年6月。「九段の構え3。滝澤建治が語る恩師滝澤光三」。滝澤建治。
Permission was granted from Kozo sensei’s sons, Takizawa Kenji and Masaya sensei to write this article.
Contents used with permission of Takizawa Kenji sensei.

A Lineage all but Forgotten: The Yushinkan (Nakayama Hakudo)

Introduction

There are few martial artists in history who have been able to influence an entire generation of politicians, military personnel, police, educators, and civilians alike.  Who’s student’s (if only for a day) talked about their experiences with him in detail nearly seventy years after his death.  The first San-Dou-no-Hanshi (三道の藩士) in history. The “God of Kendo”  (剣道の神様) Nakayama Hakudo.

Nakayama Hakudo was arguably the most influential martial artist in modern history.  Many instructors and students around the world claim to have some “connection” to him, having practiced some form or another of his Iaido. Yet, these same people (in Japan and abroad) know little more than his name.  Only by looking at his humble origins, ambitions, accomplishments, and outlooks can we come closer to understanding the man and his styles.
Continue reading A Lineage all but Forgotten: The Yushinkan (Nakayama Hakudo)

Osaka police captain: Teramoto Shoji

Osaka people: Police tokuren captain, Teramoto Shoji (35)

(The following is a quick translation on a newspaper piece on the hugely popular Teramoto Shoji. The article was published in Osaka version of the Mainichi Shinbun on the 18th of January 2011. The picture at the top of the article is by George and was taken in the Osaka Budosai in 2008. Teramoto is on the left..)

Emitting authority – the quest for strength

“Kendo has no end point, no final destination”

Working as Japanese captain in the 2009 world championships, he took the top position in the team and individual competitions. Even now, however, he is still seeking to polish his spirit, technique, and body: Osaka special police kendo team captain, Teramoto Shoji (35).

On the 30th of August 2009, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, Japan won the mens team competition in the World Kendo Championships. Team captain Teramoto went over to his team mate and cried on his shoulder. “Its not easy being the captain. Rather than happiness, I feel relief that I was able to carry out my responsibilities.”

From the first world kendo championships until the one prior to Brazil – Taiwan in 2006 – Japan had never failed to win (Japan took male and female individuals as well as the females team competition. They were beaten by America in the mens competition and had to settle for third place). At a time when the Japanese team performance received many criticisms, Teramoto was selected as team captain.

Teramoto was born in April 1975 in Kumamoto prefecture. At that time his father (66) was in the construction industry and his mother (60) a housewife. Impressed by seeing his cousin doing kendo, he started when he was in 1st year of primary school (6yrs old). Having to shoulder the burden of his sons kendo costs his pessimistic father said to him “If you are going to do kendo, do it seriously. Don’t do it half-hearted then quit!” From the start, Teramoto was resolved to do his best at kendo, and he still holds his fathers words close to his heart even now.

In 1998 he entered the police force. At 183cm’s and with a strong body the shihan (of Osaka tokuren) saw his future promise and worked to have him join the squad. Compared with other team members who had won lots of shiai in their school and university kendo careers, he had an unremarkable past and was a complete unknown.

“I left my parents in my hometown, resolved my will, and joined. I didn’t want to end my kendo career as just another ‘normal’ kenshi.”

From this feeling he became a “keiko mushi” (a term used in Japan to mean someone who does lots of keiko at different places). Teramoto would try to find free time and go to other dojo and practise as much as he could. The squad manager at the time – Ishida Yoji – recognised that Teramoto was inquiring deeply into how to become strong.

Teramoto has won the All Japan kendo championships. In 2006 and 7 he was part of Osaka team that won the police championships two years in a row. From 2008 he became the team captain but there has already been talk of his retirement as he’s already reached the retirement age (34 is the normal age tokuren are retired). However Teramoto wants “to become stronger. I want to show this (in shiai).” Recapturing the police championship title is his goal for this year. With a mind on winning – “I want to drink delicious sake (after winning)!” – this years preparations have begun.

He lives with his wife (Mai, 35, who he met at the police kendo club), his daughter Suzuna (8), and his son Takeyori (4). In their daily life recently there has been a welcome change: His daughter Suzuna, who has always said “I don’t want to do kendo” suddenly changed her mind and said “I want to do kendo.” “Before she changed her mind again I bought her kendo equipment” said Teramoto, and – for a moment – his usual kenshi face turned into that of a normal father.


Source

毎日新聞。「なにわ人模様:府警剣道部主将・寺本将司さん」。2011年1月18日近藤大介。
The Online version of this article (Japanese) can be seen here.