Today I spent the whole day at yet another university invitational shiai for high school students (it’s that time of year!). I got up at 6am and was greeted with a cold and rainy Osaka morning. Jamming a banana in my mouth, I bought a coffee at the nearby convenience store and headed over to Kyoto.
As usual, the day went as follows:
– opening ceremony and morning shiai (preliminary rounds)
– lunch break and another warmup
– knock-out rounds
– godogeiko with university students and graduates
Of the different type of shiai I attend, I much prefer these invitational ones to “official” shiai because of the always-included (if short and frantic!) godogeiko session at the end.
A couple of years ago when I was visiting Tokyo for some kendo, I stumbled upon a chunky kendo book from 1935 in a second hand bookstore. What immediately caught my attention was name of one of the most fearsome kenshi of the 20th century on the cover: Takano Shigeyoshi (adopted son of Sasaburo). Another name on the cover suggested it was co-written, but that person I had never head of: Tanida Saichi. Of course, I immediately bought the book, took it back to my hotel room, and had a closer inspection. It was at this point I noticed that Tanida was the principal author whereas Takano served as a proofreader/mentor for the project.
I couldn’t uncover any information about Tanida at all other than what was written in the introduction (where it mentions Takano was his sensei and that he has studied kendo for over 20 years) which is very frustrating! At a best guess – based on the content of the book – I’d say that he was some sort of professional school kendo teacher. The fact that Takano was his sensei suggests that he was either a student of Takano at the Urawa Meishinkan between 1900-14 or in Manchuria sometime after 1914. Perhaps it was a bit of both.
Anyway, an extremely detailed book, it goes into a lot more detail and covers a much larger scope than any other kendo book I have seen, pre or post war. To give you a clue as to just how comprehensive it is, here are the chapter titles:
1. The nation and athletics
2. The social position of Budo
3. The development of kendo
4. The significance of kendo
5. The purpose of kendo
6. Kendo and discipling the body
7. Kendo and discipling the spirit
8. Kendo and technical skill
9. Where does the essence of kendo lie?
10. Kendo and calligraphy
11. Kendo and character
12. Kendo is dignity
13. Kendo and the military
14. Kendo and bushido
15. The holes in modern kendo
16. The steps in kendo
17. Things to prepare about in your kendo shugyo
18. The process to walk the path of kendo
19. What we can apply from the life of self-improvement led by Confucius to our kendo shugo
21. Things we should be careful about during practise
22. Kendo bogu and uniform
23. Basic movements
25. Basic striking
26. Other ways to strike
27. Things to be careful about when striking
28. Basic drills
29. How to move the sword
30. Special training
31. Musha shugyo
32. Attacking strategies
33. Defending strategies
35. Types of keiko
37. Dealing with jodan, nito, naginata, or other types of weapons
38. Men techniques
39. Kote techniques
40. Dou techniques
41. Tsuki techniques
42. Kendo in school
43. Discussion on teaching kendo
44. Discussion on how to help others improve
45. Discussion about competitors
46. Kendo teaching material
47. The steps in designing kendo teaching material
48. The conventions for teaching material
49. Things you should be careful about as a kendo teacher
50. Grading kendo
51. Dai nippon teikoku kendo kata
54. Types of shiai
55. The style of “Kokutai yusho taikai”
56. Kendokai (keikokai)
57. Kendo seminars
58. Size/weight of shinai
59. How to improve technical skill
60. How to forge the spirit
61. Taking stock
62. Kendo and women
64. Eishin-ryu iai
65. Shizuka-ryu naginata
66. Setsunin-to, katsujin-ken
68. Things you should know about the katana
Whew!! I don’t think I translated the chapter titles 100% accurately, but I think you get the gist: the book is super comprehensive. In fact, I think I’ll have to wait for retirement before I’ll ever find the time to sit down and read it from start to finish.
I contemplated translating a small part of this book today, but I think I’ll leave that for another time. Instead, please enjoy some pictures/illustrations from the inside of the book itself.
btw, when doing some online research about the book I discovered that it was re-issued in modern format a few years ago. I haven’t seen the new version, but if you are interested you can pick it up here at amazon.jp.
As I’ve discussed on kenshi 24/7 many times, Naito Takaharu sensei was – is, in fact – the single most influential figure in modern kendo’s history (the closest person to this title is his rival, Takano Sasaburo). His idea of kendo, both in execution and in thought, permeates kendo today. Often this idea is expressed more as an ideal, but people serious about kendo still follow his defined kendo diet of kirikaeshi, uchikomi, taiatari, and kakarigeiko. He also saw little or no point in competition for the serious shugyo-sha, an attitude that has been almost lost today, even amongst senior practitioners.
During his 30 years as the most senior Butokukai kenshi he taught many people (including every 10th dan) but, being the humble person he was, he didn’t leave a lot of written material. However, his students talked about him profusely over the following years.
Luckily, in addition to the personal accounts left by his students, there were two volumes dedicated to Naito sensei produced, both of which I own and will introduce today.
The first is a book called “Kenshi: Naito Takaharu.” Luckily it was put together and printed just over a year after his death (he died on the 9th of April 1929 and the book was published for the Kyoto Taikai in 1930). Due to the books immediate nature it serves as an invaluable testament to the man.
The second book was published in 1975, a full 45 years after his death, and is entitled “Kensei: Naito Takaharu.” This book is valuable for two reasons, the first being the passage of time, and the second being less rushed content. In particular, comments by the most senior sensei of the day about their relationship to and experiences under Naito sensei are invaluable.
Unless I win the lottery and can quit my day job it’s impossible to translate the books fully, so let me just introduce a random portion from the earlier book.
From “Kenshi: Naito Takaharu” : Shinpan
The way Naito sensei did shinpan was as if he were a giant mountain. He would never move nor even stand from the shinpans seat. Even if the competitors were in a situation where he couldn’t see clearly he wouldn’t move. He would explain this by saying “If you can’t see them with your eyes, you should be able to sense them with your heart.”
When the shimpan of shiai were from the older generations (and thus smaller in stature) sometimes he would spot one siting on the shinpan chair with their legs dangling down not touching the floor. If he saw a scene like this Naito sensei would call the sensei to his house and warn them: “Sit naturally and place your hands on your knees. If you don’t sit yourself properly then how can you shinpan correctly? If you are sitting on your seat and move around you’ll make bad calls.”
When shinpaning he hated black tabi. Even if it were very cold he’d rather just shipan in his bare feet or, occasionally, he’d wear white tabi. He stuck to this rule even in large taikai. Due to this there was an instance where a famous kendo sensei was due to work as a shinpan in a shiai. The sensei tried to find some white tabi in Kyoto but couldn’t, and ended up judging in his bare feet.
* Note that until after the war (excluding the Tenran-jiai) a single shinpan was normal. They sat in a chair.
Naito sensei gallery
Most of the images included below are from the books mentioned.
Naito Takaharu sensei
Naito Takaharu sensei
Naito Takaharu sensei
Naito sensei is on the right
Keishicho kendo teachers – Naito is second row from the bottom, first on the right
Teikoku kendo no kata organisers: Naito in the middle
Mihashi is on the left, and Naito on the right (middle is Ueno)
Zusetsu Kendo Jiten (A pictorial encyclopaedia of kendo) is a wonderful A4-sized hardback book published in 1970. The book’s authors, Nakano Yasoji (hanshi hachidan) and Tsuboi Saburo (kyoshi nanadan), were backed up by input from one of the most famous kenshi that ever lived, Mochida Moriji (hanshi, judan).
The book starts with some beautiful colour plates including Mochida and Nakano sensei performing kendo no kata at Noma dojo as well as some random snaps from the 1969 All Japan Kendo Championships.
The rest of the book is in black and white and includes lots of pictures of waza and diagrams of this and that. A nice weighty book, it’s fairly comprehensive and easy to understand, and would make a nice addition to any kenshi’s library… even if they don’t read Japanese.
Every year, around about the 4th-6th, Osaka prefecture hosts an open “Kangeiko” session. I put that in quotes because it’s not really a traditional kangeiko style, i.e. early in the morning in a cold dojo. It’s held in Osaka city’s central gym and is really quite warm!! Actually, chatting to older sempai of mine, I hear that the event used to be held in Shudokan (who are co-hosts along with the prefectural association) over a 10-day period starting at 6am in the morning. Now THAT is proper kangeiko!
Anyway, nowadays it is a three-day event and the format is as follows:
– 10 mins of warmup and suburi
– 20 mins of kirikaeshi
– 20 mins of kakarigeiko
– 20 mins jigeiko with the sensei (20 mins)
– 20 mins jigeiko split into two groups: student group (primary, junior high, and high school kids practising with each other) and an adult one (university students and older)
There is also an afternoon renshi-jiai and open godo-keiko session on days 2 and 3 for high school students (which started about three or four years ago).
On average you will have well over 1000 participants and a whole host of hachidan, sometimes as many as 50 at one go.
This year I couldn’t participate actively due to a health issue, so I took some vid and photos to share. Enjoy!