The following is a translation of short piece by Haga Junichi.
Haga was born in 1908 and started kendo when he was 18. Moving to Tokyo he joined Nakayama Hakudo’sYushinkan and became one of the top pupils there. With Nakayama’s introduction he got a post as an imperial guard in 1930, eventually being transferred to keishicho in 1931 to work as a professional kendo instructor. In 1934 he transferred to Korea and taught kendo at police, military, and university level. Post WW2 he was a much sought after kendo teacher, but he turned down various requests, including an offer from keishicho. He was also influentially in helping to start up the ZNKR but chose not to continue his work there soon after the organisations establishment. He died in 1966.
Pressure the opponents spirit and technique with your own
During shiai practice most people (save the selfish) feel defeated when struck. On the other hand, there are times when, despite not sensing or feeling that you have been struck even lightly, a point is scored against you. This type of loss happens only when you spar with someone who is good at “touching” and cannot be said to be a true victory.
There is a kendo teaching that says:
There are mysterious victories, but no mysterious defeats.
If you take the effort to discipline yourself daily over time it stands to reason that you will naturally develop good cutting ability. With this skill there are times where you will be victorious in competition. Despite acquiring such technique however, there are times that you may lose: the source of this loss springs from trying to force things to much, that is, by desire and ambition. Like this, there are times in kendo where despite hitting or striking someone you don’t feel like you have been victorious.
Rather than talk about other people, let me give an example using myself.
Back when I was attended keiko at keishicho (Tokyo Metropolitan Police), there was this one time when I approached Saimura Goro sensei for keiko. I was around 24 or 25 and he was in his 40s I think. I had what I thought was quite a good spar with Saimura sensei, and so did my friend who was watching. However, when I sat in seiza and thought about it, all I could remember were the few times I was struck by Saimura sensei… all the strikes I thought I had made had disappeared from my mind like melted snow. I realised then that my strikes had actually been spiritless and that Saimura sensei had just led me around by the nose, striking me with large spirited strikes now and then as he pleased.
In kendo, if you don’t attack the faults in your opponents technique or any deficiency in their spirit, then you will never achieve true victory.
Edo, December 1865. Momoi Junzo and 8 of his disciples were walking home in the fading evening light after finishing their end of year keiko. Despite the cold and the late hour, the city was still busy preparing for the upcoming end-of-year and new-year celebrations. Coming down the hill at Choenjizaka and tuning into Ichigaya they came face to face with a group of horsemen travelling in the opposite direction. As the street was narrow Momoi and his disciples moved to give the horsemen space. Suddenly, one of the horsemen shouted brusquely:
“This is the city patrol, get out of our way!”
Despite the rude manner, Momoi replied calmly:
“Please, pass by.”
“Get further out of the way!” one of the horsemen shouted. “We need more space, move! We are the Shinchogumi under command of the Sakai family from Shonai domain. We are charged with policing the city. Move!”
“We saw that you were patrolmen and moved to let you pass. As you can see, we cannot move further than we have. Surely you can squeeze past?” replied Momoi.
“What?! Are you disobeying our order!” barked one of the horsemen, at which Momoi’s top student Ueda Umanosuke lost it:
“What the hell !?! I can’t forgive such insolence!!!!”
Immediately a number of the Shinchogumi as well as Ueda drew their swords and moved towards each other. All hell had broken loose.
In that instant Momoi stepped in-between the drawn swords. He faced the man who seemed to be the Shinchogumi’s superior officer and said gently:
“Excuse me, but I think you can see that we moved aside for you. Do you have any intention to rein in your men? Or are you planning to allow them to cut us down?”
The calmness of Momoi’s question disarmed the superior officer and he made no reply. Momoi then stepped forward, grabbed the still-mounted officers hakama, and pulled him strongly:
“Now, get down of your horse, I want a word with you.”
The dismounted officer and Momoi stood face to face:
“My name is Momoi Junzo, and I am a Shogun-appointed kenjutsu teacher at the Kobusho. Even though you are a follower of the Sakai family from the Shonai domain and an officially appointed patrolman, I can’t forgive your outrageous actions. If it’s a fight you want then I won’t stop it.”
Motioning towards his top student:
“This here is Ueda Umanosuke. He has a reckless disposition and it looks like he didn’t use up all his energy at keiko today.”
The officer, immediately realising just who it was he had crossed, meekly apologised, followed by his red faced men, and the whole affair was settled.
Momoi never drew his sword.
The dignity of Momoi Junzo
Momoi has dignity, Chiba skill, and Saito power
Known mostly nowadays as the 4th generation master of Kyoshin meichi-ryu, Momoi Junzo (1825-85) was a highly significant kenshi in the late Edo/early Meiji period. He first reached fame while teaching kenjutsu in central Edo in the 1850’s. His dojo, Shigakukan, was one of the most renowned dojo in the city, ranking with Chiba Shunsuke’s Genbukan and Saito Yakuro’s Renpeikan (collectively they were know as the “3 big dojo’s of Edo”).
His prowess was awarded with promotion in status and a teaching position at the highly prestigious Kobusho (Bakufu military training academy). From this position – and through his students – he would go onto to influence (directly and indirectly) on what would later become kendo.
Finding Junzo (field work)
Although I’ve known that Momoi moved to Osaka during the Bakumatsu period for a number of years now, I hadn’t really bothered rolling up my sleeves and poking around to see if I could find any remnants of the man… mainly because there was – as far as I knew – no physical structures left that I could go and visit. Recently, however, I accidentally discovered that in later life he had worked as a shinto priest just south of Osaka and that his grave was in the vicinity of the shrine. Using the excuse of a sore elbow, I decided to skip keiko one Saturday and go exploring.
The grave: Momoi’s grave is located in the far corner of a gravesite situated on the edge of a Kofun, a type of very old and, usually very large, key-shaped mound grave unique to Japan. The particular mound is called Hakayama Kofun and is located very near Furuichi station in Habikino, south Osaka. I guess nobody really visits the area much as there are almost no sign posts and very little information on Momoi save a very old and very faded bio of his life. Momoi’s wife Fumiko is also interred at the same site.
The shrine: A short 15 minute walk from the gravesite takes you to Konda Hachimangu (originally constructed in 1051), the large and spacious shinto shrine where Momoi spent his final years. Although there would’ve been a dojo in the grounds back in the day, there was no sign of one now.
Although there isn’t a lot of physical remnants of the Momoi left to wonder at, it’s nice to put the shinai and the books down now and then and actually get out and visit somewhere. It also served as a great impetus for revision.
If you are in Osaka and looking for something alternative to visit rather than the usual places, then I can recommend this as a nice afternoon out. Check out the gallery below for pictures of his grave and the shrine.
The first batch of instructors were chosen by Sakakibara Kenkichi (perhaps with input from Momoi?) and included the following of Momoi’s students: Kajikawa Yoshimasa, Ueda Umanosuke, and Henmi Sosuke. More of Momoi’s students were also employed by keishicho later, for example Sakabe Daisuke.
It was these kenshi that would put together the Keishi-ryu gekken and battojutsu kata, both of which include a single Kyoshin meichi-ryu kata each.… all that is left of the school today. It’s important to note that this was the first ever attempt at trying to standardise a set of kata to be taught to swordsmen from differing backgrounds, and as such can be considered a forerunner to kendo kata.
In the years that followed, young keishicho kenjutsu teachers/students would go on to include Naito Takaharu, Takano Sasaburo, and Monna Tadashi amongst others… all of whom would receive instruction under Kyoshin meichi-ryu kenshi (i.e. Momoi’s disciples). They would all also be involved in the creation of kendo kata in the future.
Nowadays it’s hard to measure exactly what impact/influence Momoi had on keishicho and modern kendo (especially since Kyoshin meichi-ryu is now no longer extant), but we can probably surmise that it wasn’t insignificant.
1825: born in Suruga province, Numazu domain (present day Shizuoka prefecture) as the 2nd son of the samurai Tanaka Toyoaki. His childhood name was Tanaka Zinsuke and his adult name Naomasa.
1838: went to Edo (Tokyo) and began studying Kyoshin meichi-ryu at Shigakukan under the 3rd generation teacher of the school, Momoi Naokatsu.
1852: became the 4th generation master of the school, taking on the hereditary name of “Momoi Junzo” (by this time he had taken the current teachers daughter as a wife and was adopted into the family).
1856: The Tosa domain samurai Takechi Hanpeita comes to Edo and enters Shigakukan (already an accomplished swordsman, this shows Momoi’s fame). Spotting Takechi’s talent, Momoi makes him the chief student of the dojo.
1862: The shogunate promotes Momoi, making him a direct retainer of the shogun. He is then ordered to become a kenjutsu teacher at the shogunate’s military training facility for senior retainers, the Kobusho. Other instructors included Odani Seiichiro and Sakakibara Kenkichi (Yamaoka Tesshu entered as a student and became an assistant instructor).
1867: is made the head bodyguard of Tokugawa Yoshinobu when he goes to Kyoto after which he is appointed a kenjutsu instructor at the short-lived Kobusho in Osaka (at Tamatsukuri). Disagreeing with the Boshin war, Momoi and a few of his students withdraw to the south of Osaka.
1868: government forces expel the shogunate forces from the Kansai area and burn down Osaka castle. The shogunate attempt to recruit Momoi to their cause again but he refuses. Instead he takes up an offer from the loyalist government to teach kenjutsu to soldiers from Satsuma, Choshu, and Geishu who would be responsible for policing Osaka. A dojo was built for this purpose in a now no longer extant temple in Tenma.
1868-70: after the prefectural system was set up and “Osaka prefecture” came in to being, a more official policing structure was started called the Naniwa-tai (it began with 80 members). Momoi was 1 of the 4 leaders of this where he continued to teach kenjutsu. At its peak, there were over 600 peace keepers in the system. In 1870 the organisation was split up as the civil war was over (the modern police system would not begin until later). During this period a new Shigakukan based in central Osaka was built and he taught kenjutsu here as well.
1875: becomes head priest of Konda-hachimangu where he built a dojo and taught kenjutsu, and Chinese classics.
1884: becomes the official kendo instructor for Osaka prefecture
1885: dies of cholera.
2005: is awarded a posthumous citing from the All Japan Kendo Federation
Bio of Momoi next to his grave
The location of Shigakukan in Tokyo is marked with this sign
1. the terms kendo, kenjutsu gekken, gekiken, shinai uchikomi are often used synonymously in this article.
2. the kanji for “Momoi” is sometimes read “Momonoi”
This article is based more on “pulp” sources rather than academic or original sources. There is nothing online in English about Momoi at all, so please consider this simply a basic primer about the man, rather than something academically substantial. Note that I used some artistic licence in the introductory part of the article!!
Almost straight away after graduating university back in 1996 I moved to the east coast of America and began working in the I.T. industry. I’d already started kendo a couple of years before and wanted to continue while I was over there. It took a while for work to settle down and to find a dojo (at that time kendo was not nearly as popular as it is now), but when I did get back into it I was lucky enough to become a member of Ken-Zen dojo in NYC. Different dojo do things differently and this dojo required that we say some Japanese out loud before keiko began. Not speaking Japanese at the time, I just had to memorise it as best I could:
Ken to wa kokoro nari.
Koroko tadashi kereba sono ken tadashi.
Kokoro tadashi karazareba sono ken mo mata tadashi karazu.
Ken wo manaban to suru mono wa subekaraku sono kokoro wo manabe
This is of course the well known saying by renowned late Edo-era Jikishinkage-ryu kenshi Shimada Toranosuke (1814-52). It translates as:
The sword is the mind.
When the mind is right, the sword it right.
When the mind is not right, the sword is also not right.
He who wishes to study kendo, must first study his mind.
Today in 2014, 200 years after Shimada’s birth, I think this still resonates with a lot of modern kendoka… or at least it does with me. I was happy, then, to find another quote from Shimada a while back, and I’d like to present a translation of it for kenshi 24/7 readers today:
There are two contrasting types of people (kendo practitioners) nowadays. The first looks for an opening before pressing forward and striking or, sensing an impending attack, steps back and defends. When calm, he stands like the mountain; when moving quickly, he does so like the wind or rain. This type of person neither celebrates victory nor gets angry at defeat. He learns from those stronger than him by following their example, and educates those less skilled than himself. This type of kendo is called “the sword of the virtuous.”
The second type of person arrogantly runs in to attack with a great shout. He feels joy in victory and annoyance in defeat, and his attacks are wild and without reason. This type of kendo is called “the sword of the inferior.”
Personally, like the “ken to wa kokoro nari” I learned almost 20 years ago, I find that this exemplifies simply the type of kendo I want to do ( = the type of person I want to be).
Virtuous vs Inferior
In kanji, the “virtuous” referred to above is 君子 (kunshi) and it’s opposite (“inferior”) is 小人 (shojin). A man (or woman) who is “kunshi” is one of virtue, someone who is just, moral, dignified, and cultivated. The opposite of this is morally suspect (or even bankrupt), carries themselves in an undignified way, lacks culture, acts unjustly, etc, that is, (comparatively) an inferior person.
A few years ago I was given a t-shirt from a kendo friend in China, the back of which reads “kunshi no michi”:
In a way I feel we have come about circle: “ken no michi” (the way of the sword, i.e. kendo) is the same as “kunshi no michi” (the path of virtue). I say same, but in reality kendo shugyo is just a device that helps orientate people onto or towards a virtuous path. “Help” here is the key word as many people choose not to do kendo with these things in mind. Anyway, you don’t have to believe me, instead re-read the kendo no rinen (the concept of kendo):
The concept of Kendo is to discipline the human character through the application of the principles of the Katana (sword).
Returning home to Scotland this summer I took some time out from my busy schedule and taught a small kihon-based seminar similar to how I run the Eikenkai sessions here in Osaka. The event was hosted by my home dojo, Edinburgh Kendo Club. Led by Edinburgh University’s Head of Strength & Conditioning Steve Bishop sensei, Edinburgh Kendo Club is one of the largest dojo in the U.K.
It’s the third time I’ve done the this (the first was in 2010, the second in 2012) and the format was mostly similar: a double session on Saturday then a morning session on Sunday. The focus on Saturday was on the traditional kendo pedagogy: kirikaeshi, uchikomigeiko, and kakarigeiko. On Sunday we did a short (but exhausting!) review of this followed by an introduction to Takano Sasaburo’s Gogyo-no-kata, including the history behind it and it’s relation to the kata we study today as part of kendo.
Before, in-between, and after the weekend I had plenty of chances to sit down over beer and discuss kendo with friends (new and old) and had a great time. I hope I don’t have to wait 2 years to see everyone again !!!
Just a quick status update – yours truly will be going home to Scotland for 3 weeks over the summer (from Tuesday!) so there will be a break in the regular posting schedule and facebook updates… apologies!! I did intend to write another post this week, but I ended up doing loads of keiko (14 sessions) so I ended up with no time. Oops!