Concerning the problem of tsuki 突きの問題について

The following is a translation of another short article by Takizawa Kozo hanshi. As someone who was never taught tsuki for many years of his kendo career I think I would have liked to have had Takaizawa hanshi’s advice on the matter earlier.

I started my own experiment (almost untaught) as a member of the British kendo team years ago: myself and a couple of friends all agreed that we would practise tsuki together; we weren’t really taught it, and poked each other for a year or two, slowly making some progress. Years later I now teach tsuki as a fundamental technique and have gone from merely thinking that its cool, to wondering how you could actually do kendo without it.

At any rate, the following article is from 1978, enjoy!

Concerning the problem of tsuki
making tsuki waza a central technique of children’s kendo

For a long time its been said “Kendo begins and ends with Tsuki” (a saying attributed to the teachings of Hokkushin itto-ryu). You can see this if you look at the composition of kendo no kata: you are expected to pressure the center of your opponents body with your kensen, and not remove it from there (this is expressed in zanshin as well).

After the war, it was declared that tsuki was too dangerous to be attempted by those of junior high school age and younger, and its use was outlawed in shiai of that age-range. Accordingly, its become the norm that the technique is not taught in normal practise anymore.

(Editor: Its possible that Takizawa sensei was suggesting that not only did children not learn the technique, but this special handling of tsuki influenced their kendo into adulthood as well. This is certainly my personal experience, where many people develop good kendo, yet are hesitant to use or even practise tsuki.)

Post-war kendo was re-conceived as a sport, and as such sportified new rules were created. Because of this, it became important to ensure safety, and elements of the traditional kendo pedagogy (pre-war) became undesirable, e.g. leg sweeping, grappling, pushing and shoving (with no aim of scoring), striking un-armoured areas, etc… these in fact became hansoku. On top of that – due to pain felt when hitting the ears – valid yoko-men strikes were limited to those above the ear only, and tsuki became a banned technique for those of junior high school age and below. Anything that was thought to be dangerous was constrained by the rules, and regulations were detailed minutely.

Pre-war kendo was conceived as budo (bujutsu), so things like leg sweeping, grappling, pushing and shoving, etc in fact there was even a time when over the top violent actions happened openly and without penalty. At this time, it was the case that older people, women, and youths hesitated to practise kendo.

(Editor: Women kenshi were extremely rare pre-war. The only time you hear of any are those that took part in Sakakibara’s gekkikenkai, where women were for show/curiosity, and very occasionally at places like Noma dojo. I don’t think its that they ‘hesitated’ but that they couldn’t train, but that they couldn’t.)

Nowadays kendo done by amateurs. That children, youths, women, and old people can all practise together is largely because there is a high level of safety involved. We should recognise this characteristic as one that is mainly responsible for the success of modern kendo.

On the other hand, because of this minute detailing of rules, we can see people doing this such as deliberately trying to break them, taking breaks in tsubazeriai, etc, basically we see a bad tendency to try various methods to win and the essential essence of kendo – etiquette, strictness, intensity – has become diluted.

In this way, even though we note the success of modern kendo, we must deeply consider and reflect on what its become. One example is the case where we have banned tsuki for use in children of junior high school age and below; to look at it a different way, if you consider the very basis of kendo – hitting a clear DATOTSU (打突) i.e. cutting (打) and thrusting (突) – we have removed the thrusting part (突) and as such its not an exaggeration to say what we are left with is a kendo that incomplete (deformed).

I looked at the (kendo) publics opinion on the matter of “tsuki as a dangerous technique.” In amongst people who claim this, there are those that simply say “tsuki is dangerous” without giving any concrete examples; their view is simply abstract. Instructors that get together and say this in one voice paint a bad image of pre-war kendo. In particular, although they accept that kendo should be used for educational purposes, those that teach kendo in schools are amongst the most vocal about the issue of danger.

In the situation that has risen as described above, where public (abstract) opinion says that “tsuki technique is dangerous” in spite of evidence to prove it and the technique has been banned in junior high schools and below, and because this situation obstructs the development/growth of kendo and inhibits the ability to transmit the traditional culture of kendo to future generations, we must impose on instructors to clarify tsuki technique (so that its proper use will be understood).

When the children that come to my dojo (6-12years old) are able to put on their bogu and perform kakarigeiko to a good level, the first thing I then teach is morotezuki. If you introduce tsuki at this age, they will naturally be able to acquire good technique. The purpose to have them study tsuki is that the children should be forced to understand the following points about the importance of kihon:

  1. Strike men as if aiming to tsuki, don’t let your kensen go outside your opponents center (correct chudan no kamae);
  2. It helps fix unnatural tenouchi (correct grip);
  3. Tsuki not with your hands, but with your hips (correct body movement);
  4. Modotachi receives by tucking their chin in and keeping posture (correct posture);
  5. If mododachi’s footwork is wrong (with their heal down on the ground) then there is a fear that they will be knocked over (correct ashisabaki);
  6. Both the motodachi and the technique executor become serious (feeling of tension).

Using tsuki technique to force the above understanding on students is useful.

From now on, I would like and expect those teaching children to teach tsuki not as a dangerous technique, but as a fundamental part of kendo’s basics; as a safe, efficient, important part of instructors teaching method, and for tsuki to be used more widely in general. If teaching children tsuki becomes open it will have the knock on effect of good technique later in life. To that effect, we must devise a method to increase instructors teaching ability.

Takizawa Kozo
Showa 53 (1978), January 20th.


思斉館滝澤道場 創立30周年記念誌。平成12年発行。非売品。 初代館長藩士九段瀧澤光三。

A practical guide to jodan-training.

This is not meant as a guide for learning jodan, but more a guide of how to implement jodan training in your dojo.

I’ll assume  that you already have permission from your teacher to practice jodan and skip the whole ‘why train jodan’ issue. I also assume that your are proficient with a variety of waza in chudan. Jodan does not have the variety of waza that you have in chudan, so compromises/work-around will have to be made and this list here is based on my own experience over the years in a couple of different dojo’s  and from training with people from a wide variety of experience.

The size and general experience level will greatly influence how you practice. In more experienced/smaller dojo’s it’s much easier for people to get used to practicing with jodan and working with the variations of the wazas. If you have a lot of beginners, it’s easy to make them confused and you should also bear in mind of how much benefit you’ll get from practicing jodan against a beginner.


It’s the most basic exercise in chudan and remains so for jodan. Depending on your left arm strength and your training partners, you’ll need to be aware of a few variations.

Variant 1: Katate-men, katate-sayumen. This one takes a lot out of your wrist/forearm unless the motodachi is skilled at receiving kirikaeshi.
A good motodachi will either let you hit their men on the sayumen or just block it slightly with his shinai, so that it still goes through to the men. However, most people, especially less experienced people, will block it completely and often pushing out against the cut. This makes it exceedingly hard to do katate-sayumen.  So..unless you know the motodachi well enough (or in smaller clubs, have talked about it beforehand) and know that they will let the sayumen go through, I don’t recommend this type of kirikaeshi.

Variant 2: Katate-men, morote-sayumen. The big straight men-uchi’s are still done as katate-men, but the sayumen are done with both hands, but keeping the right foot forward. The upper body movement should be familiar, so focus on the footwork.

Receiving kirikaeshi should be done from chudan.


The main thing to watch out for, is that people will often step in too close when they are receiving.Make sure to make people aware of the additional distance required. This is also the most important waza to learn. If you are not able to threaten the men with a strong attack, you will struggle with your jodan, so I suggest that whenever you have to ‘substitute’ a waza that cannot be executed from jodan, just practice your men-uchi.
Receive from chudan or receive strikes to either kote in jodan


This is probably the most problematic for new jodan player, especially in more ‘gentle’ dojos. Katate-kote will always be hitting hard. You are cutting from up high, with  less than half the force available to apply tenuchi and it will be hard and often inaccurate. However, holding back will build bad habits, so you have to find the fine balance of doing something that probably will hurt the motodachi (to a varying degree)  while also preventing from building bad habits by slowing down the cut.  It will depend a lot on your dojo, but be aware of the issue and if you have concerns, talk to your motodachi/dojo-mates and adjust accordingly.

Receiving kote can be done from both chudan and jodan. More experienced people will take the opportunity to practice the cuts against jodan, but beginners should probably just focus on hitting your kote whilst in chudan.


Katate-do just doesn’t work. Even on a compliant opponent it’s hard to get the right impact and follow-through and frankly, I see no point in practicing it. Instead, you should make gyaku-do your default Do-uchi. The angle is more natural from jodan and most opponents will lift up towards their right side to protect kote & men, often leaving the gyaku-do wide open. You can go through(both sides), back, sideways.

Receive from jodan, but encourage people to hit gyaku do, as it’s the more likely side of the do to be open on a jodan player.


In theory, doing tsuki from jodan is possible, but it’s rather difficult. I tend to replace it with a men or kote-uchi or do tsuki from chudan.
A key point for jodan, is also to practice receiving tsuki, as it’s important that you don’t flinch when people attack tsuki. Relish it and wear the bruises with pride.


It’s possible to do katate-kote men, but it requires a compliant opponent and very strong wrists. Instead I prefer to do either morote-kote-men (stepping across with the left foot) or morote-uchiotoshi-men. You can use this is a base for any number of combinations, as once you’ve stepped across for the first attack, it’s the same as in chudan. (uchi-otoshi-do,uchi-otoshi-men-do etc). It is still worthwhile practicing katate-kote-men from time to time, but should probably be used more as a recovery (to kamae) exercise between attacks, rather than a nidan-waza.You should receive this in chudan.


The selection of oji-waza from jodan is very small. There are other than the ones mentioned below, but they will be more ‘tricks’ rather than something you can use repeatedly .

Debana-men/kote. Katate-debana-men should be your bread & butter technique. Debana-kote requires better timing.

Nuki-men: Very similar to kote-nuki-men from chudan.

Uchi-otoshi-men. As opponent starts the attack, knock his shinai down and hit (morote) men in one smooth motion.

Most other oji-waza simply aren’t that practical from jodan (kote-kaeshi-kote?..suriage-men?), so I recommend either substitute using one of the above, or doing them from chudan.


Call them tricks, feints, deceptions. With the predictability of katate-waza, it’s important to have one or two techniques that you can use to catch the opponent off-guard. If you have a section of ‘free waza practice’, get your partner to react more or less realistic to these.

Semete-men-morote-kote: Push strongly forward with both the hands as if doing katate-men (I step across, but you can use regular fumikomi) and as opponent lifts up to block, hit morote-kote.

Semete-kote-morote-men. Push strongly forward and slightly down/left towards to the kote and as opponent starts to block, straighten up and hit morote-(yoko)-men.

Gyaku-do should be executed in similar fashion. Strong forward movement towards the men and as they lift to block, hit gyaku-do.


There’s no specific hikiwaza for jodan, but if you are intending to take part in shiai, you should also put a lot of focus on this.  Jodan can be tricky to defeat, but it’s not that difficult to obstruct and opportunities can be hard to create.Especially in team matches, you’ll often see the opponent, especially if they’re weaker, be instructed to just seek refuge in tsubazeria. (For the same reason, jodan players often end up as chuken in team matches, as they work well as ‘stoppers’)


This is mostly an issue for motodachi, in making sure that the extra distance is allowed for and that there’s little point in offering ‘kote-men’.
With kakari-geiko, pay attention to recovery, give them just enough time to get to kamae (or a little less).
Ai-kakari-geiko is possible, but chudan side needs to be fairly experienced to make it worthwhile. Consider using chudan when doing this with less experienced people.


Etiquette will vary from place to place, but whenever I practice with new people, I will start out in chudan. When we have both given what we got (or progression of the ‘fight’ stalls), I will try to pick a natural break, excuse myself and change to jodan. This means, that sometimes in mawari-geiko, that I wont always get to change to jodan. (But then that also means that practising in chudan was productive/interesting, so nothing was really lost!).

Other general ‘rules of thumb’ is that I usually don’t use jodan against in-experienced people, as the usual experience on both sides will be minimal.

Many seniors (as in age) also have little interest in practising against jodan and I try to respect that as much as possible, however when anyone calls ‘Ippon’, I will always use jodan.

I recommend reading Honda-sensei’s excellent articles on ‘Attitudes to Ji-geiko‘ and adjust your own practice accordingly.

kendo places #11: Musashi no sato

Nestled in the hills in the north of Okayama prefecture close to the border with Tottori prefecture is the small town of Mimasaka. It is here, around 1584, that the Miyamoto Musashi was said to have been born. From there Musashi embarked on his study of swordsmanship, with a narrative well known to all students of the Japanese sword arts: Kyoto and duels with the Yoshioka clan, Ganryu-jima and his famous fight with Sasaki Kojiro, and finally to a cave in Kumamoto called Reigando where he wrote his treatise on swordsmanship, the Gorin-no-sho.

The reality of Musashi’s life is clouded in mystery. Since his introduction to the Japanese public via Yoshikawa Eiji’s bestselling book (originally serialised in the Asahi Shinbun in the 1930s), truth-legend-fiction have all become wound into one. TV dramas, films, manga, anime, etc etc the popular “Miyamoto Musashi” of today is almost certainly a work of fiction rather than of reality. Its only been relatively recently that series research on him has been started, the conclusions of which seem far from concrete.

A few weeks ago I joined a 2-day gasshuku held in Okayama prefecture at Mimasaka, the supposed birthplace of the legend. I took some time out to wander around the sites and ponder about the man, probably the first time I had done so in years.

Things to see

Mimasaka town is very small. Apart from the Musashi-budokan (easily identifiable in the town as it sticks out like a sore thumb), all the Musashi related places are grouped together in a single area about 10mins walk from the station. Flags saying “Musashi no sato” in Japanese will guide you there from the station.

Musashi-no-haka (Musashi’s grave)

Next to Musashi-jinja (Musashi Temple) there is whats supposed to be the graves of Musashi and his parents. It was quiet and peaceful when I went there.

See the caveat below.

Miyamoto Musashi seika ato (The remains of Musashi’s parents home)

Not really anything to see here. Where the house was said to have been is long gone, and the current house on the property is private, so you cannot enter.

Musashi Shiryokan (Musashi archive)

The archive is a very small (one room!) museum with various artefacts related to Musashi or to the period he lived in. There are also a number of his paintings on view (not sure if they are the originals, but I doubt it).

A small place with no English information at all, I’m not sure its worth checking out unless you are a hardcore Musashi fan. Its also 500 yen to enter, which I think is a bit pricey.

Musashi dojo

It was here my gasshuku was held. Its a very nicely designed dojo, that you can enter and walk around in (when not in use). Its quite large and has a nice floor. On the walls are some pictures but apart from that, there is really nothing to see. It seems to be used mainly for Karate practise, with some niten-ichi-ryu group using it from time to time. I’m not sure about other groups use of the space.

What is great is that the dojo is not only hireable, but its dirt cheap: 700 yen/day!! If you want to stay overnight in the dojo, then its an extra 100 yen/person.

Musashi-no-sato resort

Behind the dojo there is a small “resort.” This is a small ryokan-type place where you can spend the night and eat. Next to it is a larger, more modern building where you can stay too. There is also at least a couple of public baths/onsen in the vicinity which you can use.

I didn’t see any izakaya or beer vending machines in the area however.

Miyamoto Musashi kensho, Musashi budokan

Built in 2000, this “Musashi Budokan” was built to honour Miyamoto Musashi. It is designed to look like the tsuba he used on his sword (Namakosukashi tsuba). Its main area can hold up to 6 full size kendo shiai-jo’s, and has a seating capacity of 838. It also has a budo-jo and various offices inside.


In the Go-rin-no-sho Musashi wrote* that he was born in a part of what is now Okayama prefecture. Where exactly he was born and spent his childhood is assumed to be Mimasaka town, but in reality there is scant evidence to prove it. This hasn’t stopped the town developing Musashi related businesses as they capitlise on his popularity. This has been ongoing since Yoshikawa Eiji spurred him into the popular light and I assumed has increased since the popular NHK year-long dram called “Musashi” was aired in 2003.

The biggest question mark in the area is Musashi’s grave. There are in fact 3 places in Japan that claim to have his remains. In all probability, its Kokura, in Kyushu, where Musashi lies, and not in Mimasaka.

* Its thought that he himself didn’t write the book, but that his student(s) did after his death, or at least compiled his teachings. Like everything to do with Musashi, there is little proof either way.

In Summary

Mimasaka is a small Japanese town like thousands of others all over the country. Its capitalised on its (perhaps dubious) Musashi connection to create a small “Musashi theme park” probably for financial benefit (this capitalising on historical figures, whether goes on all over Japan). If you are a die-hard Musashi fan, then perhaps its worth a day trip to check out, but not much more.

What is good, however, is the dojo facilities. If you are looking to hire a dojo for your group cheaply, and want to get away from the bustle of the city, then it might be worth considering.

How to get there

Getting there from anywhere in the Kansai region takes time, but is relatively simple.

– Take the shin-kaisoku (express) train heading to Banshu-ako from Osaka, Shin-Osaka, or
Kyoto station. (JR Rail Pass holders can take the shinkansen to Himeji then change to same shin- kaisoku above)

– At AIOI station change to the local train heading towards Okayama or Kamagori (this train will be waiting on the opposite side of the platform).

– At KAMAGORI get of the train and change to the CHIZU EXPRESS.

– The Chizu-express is a small one-carriage train that departs from Kamagori. Its not posted in English, but when you get of at Kamigori station, and pointing the same way as the train is heading, walk towards the end of the platform. There will be a small tunnel-like area that connects you with the station for the Chizu-express. They are no ticket machines here, but a manned gate. Simply hand over your ticket (or show your JR rail-pass) then buy a ticket to “Miyamoto Musashi.”

– Get on the train, relax, and enjoy the 50min ride into the country towards Miyamoto Musashi station.

Please note that Miyamoto Musashi station is unmanned. On your return journey, you must enter the train from the rear and pull a ticket from the machine. When you get off at Kamagori, hand this ticket to the train station employee and pay in cash. He/she will also give you a paper ticket that you can use to show the JR staff as evidence of which station you got on.

Musashi no sato “resort” :

Kendo no kata creators

In 1906 the Butokukai made its first research into making a set of standardised kata for teaching its students (standardised kata for teaching had already been made in Tokyo shihan-gakko – Takano Sasaburo‘s gogyo-no-kata – and Keishicho – keishi-ryu). 17 members were selected from various ryu-ha, and a set of 3 kata were created called the Butokukai kenjutsu kata (武徳会剣術型). The individual kata names were: TEN (天 heaven), CHI (地 earth), and JIN (人 human). For some unknown reason, the kata were not popular or were not implemented successfully, and they disappeared.

The photo below was taken on the 10th of August 1906 and shows the people involved in the creation of the kata. Names are given below.

Names of those involved are listed here (Note that the source is not 100% if all these names are accurate):

Front row from left-right: Negishi Shingoro, Abe, Sakabe, Shibue, Watanabe, Mitsuhashi, Tokuno, Naito Takaharu, Yano (all hanshi barring the last two). Back row from left-right: Ota, [unknown], Minabe, Nakayama Hakudo, Okuda, Yamada, Sayama, Yamazato.

A new impetus for kata standardisation occurred In 1911 when (after years of lobbying) kendo and judo were added to the school physical education syllabus. That same year the Butokukai restarted its kata standardisation programme with the aim of creating kata to teach in schools. There was a lot of information published about the sequence of events that led up to the final presentation of the kata in 1912, but some of the information in reports was abbreviated it seems, including the names of all the participants in the establishment of the kata.

Takizawa Kozo hanshi did research on the subject and the following is his compilation of the entire members of the kendo no kata standardisation board (剣道形制定委員氏名). This list will probably only interest those people that wish to research more into the formative stages of modern kendo, and those with an interest in koryu and its impact on kendo. At any rate, it is presented below.

– people with an * next to them are those that are usually credited with the creation of the dai nippon kendo no kata and are pictured above;
– those with a # were also on the board of the earlier Butokukai kenjutsu kata;
– first names in Japanese are notorious (even random) to read, so I’ve omitted them when I was unsure;
– a list attempting to do the same can be viewed online here.

[ Shogo. Prefecture/Representing. Name. Style. ]
Hanshi. Tokyo. Negishi Shingoro. Shinto munen-ryu #*
Hanshi. Tokyo. Shingai Tadatsu. Tamiya-ryu/Shinken-ryu
Hanshi. Saga. Tsuji Junpei. Shingyoto-jikishinkage-ryu *
Hanshi. Kumamoto. Wada. Shinkage-ryu
Hanshi. Nagasaki. Shibue. Shinto munen-ryu #
Kyoshi. Butokukai. Naito Takaharu. Hokushin itto-ryu #*
Kyoshi. Butokukai. Mona Tadashi. Suifu-ryu (+Hokushin itto-ryu) *
Kyoshi. Butokukai. Minatobe Kuniharu. Yamaguchi-ryu #
Kyoshi. Tokyo shihan gakko. Takano Sasaburo. Itto-ryu *
Kyoshi. Tokyo shihan gakko. Kimura. Jikishinkage-ryu
Kyoshi. Kyoto. Ota. Jikishinkage-ryu #
Kyoshi. Kyoto. Yano. Jikishinage-ryu #
Kyoshi. Tokyo. Shibata. Kurama-ryu
Kyoshi. Tokyo. Nakayama Hakudo. Shinto munen-ryu #*
Kyoshi. Hyogo. Takahashi. Mugai-ryu
Kyoshi. Aiichi. Tanaka. Hokushin itto-ryu
Kyoshi. Ibaragi. Ozawa Ichiro. Hokushin itto-ryu
Kyoshi. Saitama. Hoshino. Itto-ryu
Kyoshi. Yamagata. Koseki. Muto-ryu
Kyoshi. Nigata. Uemura. Kishin-ryu (貴心流).
Kyoshi. Yamaguchi. Ninomiya. Shinkage-ryu
Kyoshi. Kochi. Kawasaki Zensaburo. Mugai-ryu
Kyoshi. Kagoshima. Sasaki. Suifu-ryu
Kyoshi. Fukuoka. Asano. Asayama ichiden-ryu
Kyoshi. Taipei. Toyoyama. Shingyoto-ryu

6 members: Itto-ryu (closely related variants).
3 members: Jikishinkage-ryu, Shinto-munen-ryu.
2 members: Mugai-ryu, Suifu-ryu, Shingyoto-ryu.
1 member: Asayama ichiden-ryu, Kurama-ryu, Tamiya-ryu
Shinkage-ryu, Yamaguchi-ryu, Shingyoto-jikishinkage-ryu, Shin-ken-ryu, Kishin-ryu.


This is mostly based on an article found in 思斉館滝澤道場 創立30周年記念誌(非商品) which in turn is built of the following references:

剣道五十年。 庄宗光。時事通信社。

Other sources: